- A movement characterized by fervent expressions of religious feeling among masses of people.
- Strongest during 1730-1740
John Peter Zenger
- Newspaper printers in colonial days ran the risk of being jailed for libel if any article offended the political authorities.
- Was brought to trial on a charge of libelously criticizing New York's royal governor.
- His lawyer argued that his client had printed the truth about the governor, but during that time it was a criminal law to injure a governor's reputation whether the statement was true or false.
French and Indian War
- French provoked the war by building a chain of forts in the Ohio River Valley.
- Washington's troops surrendered to the Frenchmen and their Native American Allies.
Albany Plan of Union
- Recognizing the need for coordinating colonial defense, the British government called for representatives from several colonies to meet in Albany, New York.
- Developed a plan, written by Benjamin Franklin, that provided for an intercolonial government and a system for recruiting troops and collecting taxes from various colonies for their common defense.
Peace of Paris
- British acquired both French Canada and Spanish Florida.
- France ceded to Spain its huge western territory, Louisiana, and claims west of the Mississippi River in compensation for Spain's loss of Florida.
- Previously, Britain had exercised little direct control over the colonies over the colonies and had generally allowed its navigation laws regulating colonial trade to go unenforced.
- King George III and the dominant party in Parliament pursued a colonial policy aimed at solving Britain's domestic financial problems. Making the American colonies bear more of the cost of maintaining the British empire was a popular policy with various factions of Whigs that vied for the King's favor.
- Chief Pontiac led a major attack against colonial settlements on the western frontier.
- The Native Americans were angered by the growing westward movement of European settlers and by the British refusal to offer gifts as the French had done.
- British sent regular troops to deal with the "rebellion"
Proclamation of 1763
- Was the first of a series of acts by the British government that were met with anger and resistance in the colonies.
- Prohibited colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains.
- Wanted to prevent future hostilities between colonists and Native Americans.
- Also known as the Revenue Act of 1764
- Placed duties on foreign sugar and certain luxuries.
- Chief purpose was to raise money for the crown, and a companion law also provided for stricter enforcement of the Navigation Acts to stop smuggling.
- Required colonists to provide food and living quarters for British soldiers stationed in the colonies
- In an effort to raise funds to support British military forces in the colonies.
- Required that revenue stamps be placed on most printed paper in the colonies, including all legal documents, newspapers, pamphlets, and advertisements.
- First direct tax paid by the people in the colonies, as opposed to the taxes on goods that were imported into the colonies, which were paid by merchants.
Sons and daughters of liberty
- A secret society organized for the purpose of intimidating tax agents,
- Members of this society sometimes tarred and feathered revenue officials and destroyed revenue stamps
- This act asserted that Parliament had the right to tax and make laws for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever".
- Parliament enacted new duties to be collected on colonial imports of tea, glass, and paper.
- The law required that the revenues raised be used to pay crown officials in the colonies, thus making them independent of the colonial assemblies that had previously paid their salaries.
- Also allowed for the search of private homes for smuggled goods. All an official would need is a write of assistance rather than a judge's warrant permitting a search only of a specifically named property.
Letters from a farmer in Pennsylvania
- Written by John Dickinson
- Agreed that Parliament could regulate commerce but argued that duties were a form of taxation, they could not be levied on the colonies without the consent of their representative assemblies.
- No taxation without representation.
- A group of colonists harassed the guards near the customs house. The guards fired into the crowd, killing five people including an African American, Cripus Attucks.
Committee of Correspondence
- Helped to spread the idea that British officials were deliberately conspiring against colonial liberties.
- Exchanged letters about suspicious or potentially threatening British activities.
- This British customs ship had been successful in catching a number of smugglers.
- The ship ran aground off the shore of colonists disguised as Native Americans ordered the British crew ashore and then set fire to the ship.
- Made the price of the company's tea even with the tax included, cheaper then that of smuggled dutch tea.
Boston Tea Party
- A shipment of the East India Company's tea arrived in Boston harbor, but there were no buyers.
- Before the royal governor could arrange to bring the tea ashore, a group of Bostonians disguised themselves as Native Americans, boarded the British ships, and dumped 342 chests of tea into the harbor.
1) Port Act
2) The Massachusetts Government Act
3) The Administration of Justice Act
4) Expanded the quartering act
Closed the port of Boston, prohibiting trade in and out of the harbor until the destroyed tea was paid for
Massachusetts Government Act
Reduced the power of the Massachusetts legislature while increasing the power of the royal governor.
Administration of Justice Act
Allowed royal officials accused of crimes to be tried in England instead of the colonies
- Some educated Americans were attracted to a European movement in literature and philosophy.
- The leaders of this movement believed that the "darkness" of past ages could be corrected by the use of human reason in solving most of humanitys' problems
- Believed that God had established natural laws in creating the universe, but that the role of divine intervention in human affairs was minimal.
- They believed in rationalism and trusted human reason to solve the many problems of life and society, emphasized reason, science, and respect for humanity.
- A major influence on the Enlightenment and on American thinking.
- In his Two Treatises of Government, reasoned that while the state (the government) is supreme, it is bound to follow "natural laws" based on the rights that people have simple because they are human.
- Argued that sovereignty ultimately resides with the people rather than with the state.
- Said citizens had a right and a obligation to revolt against whatever government failed to protect their rights