name applied to a type of stone-tool industry characterized by large bifaces including handaxes; it began approximately 1.5 million years ago and continued in Africa and parts of Eurasia until some 200,000 years ago.
populations of a geographically widespread species living in warm regions will have longer extremities than those inhabiting cold regions.
species that produce extremely immature young that are unable to feed or care for themselves.
evolution by gradual change within a lineage.
Anatomically modern humans
the term usually used to describe the ﬁrst members of Homo sapiens.
in a geographically widespread species, populations in warmer parts of the range will be smaller- bodied than those in colder parts of the range.
the combination of genus and species name that is the basis of Linnaean classiﬁcation.
upright walking on the two hind legs (for example, humans' habitual mode of locomotion).
the cranium minus the face.
the stone-tool industry apparently asso- ciated with late Neanderthals.
Convergent (or parallel) evolution
the result of nat- ural selection producing similar adaptations in separate lineages.
the sum total of human behavior, including techno- logical, mythological, esthetic, and institutional activities.
the skull minus the lower jaw.
a character acquired by some members of an evolutionary group that serves to unite them in a taxonomic sense and distinguish them from other species in the group. (Contrast with primitive character.)
gap between the lateral incisor and the canine.
the process of brain enlargement.
a measure of relative brain size.
the impression of the inner surface of the brain case; can be natural or experimentally produced.
a measure of evolutionary separation between lineages.
a measure of evolutionary stage across lineages.
the collective term for all human-related species.
all living and extinct species of humans and apes.
a character shared by a set of species and present in their common ancestor. (Contrast with analogy.)
similar characters produced by convergent evolution. (See analogy.)
Analogy (in biology)
a character shared by a set of species but not present in their common ancestor; the result of convergent evolution. (Contrast with homology.)
the life-history strategy in which species have a low potential reproductive output.
Mitochondrial Eve hypothesis
the hypothesis, based on mitochondrial DNA evidence, that modern humans evolved recently in Africa.
the physical form of an organism.
the process by which different aspects of a species' morphology evolve at different rates.
Multiregional evolution hypothesis
the hypothesis that modern humans evolved in near concert in different parts of the Old World.
a change in genetic sequence.
the stone-tool industry characterized by ﬂakes and chopping tools produced by hard-hammer percussion of small cobbles; it began 2.5 million years ago and con- tinued in parts of Africa and Asia until 20,000 years ago, where it is more properly called chopping-tool assemblages.
the process of growth and development of an individual from conception onward.
"Out of Africa" hypothesis
the hypothesis that modern humans originated recently in Africa; based on fossil evidence.
a phylogenetic reconstruction in which the phylogeny of a group of species is inferred to be the branching pattern requiring the smallest number of evolu- tionary changes.
a method of classiﬁcation in which species are grouped together on the basis of morphological similarities.
a mode of evolution dominated by gradual change within a lineage.
the narrowing of the skull imme- diately behind the forehead.
species that produce relatively mature young that can fend for themselves to a degree immediately at birth.
a jutting forward of the face and jaw.
the location of a fossil or artifact in the pre- historic record.
a mode of evolution character- ized by periods of stasis interspersed with brief episodes of rapid change.
a prediction of the multiregional evolution hypothesis that certain morphological features will be characteristic of particular geographical locations, and will be present from early Homo erectus times through the emergence of modern Homo sapiens.
the life-history strategy in which a species has a high potential reproductive output.
the state in which some aspect of a species' anatomy consistently differs in size or form between males and females.
the evolutionary splitting of a lineage to pro- duce two daughter species.
the study of the processes by which bones become fossilized.
Taxon (pl. taxa)
any named group, such as species, genus, or family.
a mode of locomotion in which the animal remains conﬁned to the ground.
the angle subtended by the femur from the knee to the hip.