Le Chatelier's Principle
If a system is at equilibrium and a change occurs in any conditions, then the system equilibrium responds to counteract the change as much as possible.
The equilibrium that exists in a closed system when the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction.
Effect of Temperature on Equilibrium
Increase Temperature, equilibrium shifts to endothermic reaction
Decrease Temperature, equilibrium shifts to exothermic reaction
N₂+ 3H₂↔ 2NH₃
↑ Temps shift to left
↓ Temp shift to right
Effect of Concentration on Equilibrium
Increase concentration of products, equilibrium shifts to reactants.
Increase concentration of reactents, equilibrium shifts to products.
Equilibrium favours side with less moles
Effect of Pressure on Equilibrium
Increase pressure, equilibrium shifts to side with less moles
Decrease pressure, equilibrium shifts to side with more moles
Effect of Catalyst on Equilibrium
Increases rate of both forward and reverse reactions
No change to equilibrium.
High pressure is dangerous and expensive
Low temperature too low rate of reaction
High temperature push equilibrium in wrong direction