Anatomy and Phys chapter 12

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Angina Pectoris

a heart condition marked by paroxysms of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart

Arteriole

one of the small thin-walled arteries that end in capillaries

Artery

large blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the tissues of the body

Atrioventricular Valve

either of two heart valves through which blood flows from the atria to the ventricles

Atrium

any chamber that is connected to other chambers or passageways (especially one of the two upper chambers of the heart)

Bicuspid Valve

located between the left atrium and left ventricle

Capilary

The smalles of all blodo vessles, typically having a diamtere just large neough for blood cells to pass through in single file. Capillaries have extremelyu thin walls to faciliate the exchange of material between the blood and the tissues.

Cardiac Output

the amount of blood pumped out by the ventricles in a given period of time

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

an emergency procedure consisting of external cardiac massage and artificial respiration

Coronary Bypass Surgery

open-heart surgery in which the rib cage is opened and a section of a blood vessel is grafted from the aorta to the coronary artery to bypass the blocked section of the coronary artery and improve the blood supply to the heart

Coronary Circulation

circulation of blood through the coronary blood vessels to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle tissue

Diastolic Pressure

the blood pressure (as measured by a sphygmomanometer) after the contraction of the heart while the chambers of the heart refill with blood

Ductus Arteriosus

a blood vessel in a fetus that bypasses pulmonary circulation by connecting the pulmonary artery directly to the ascending aorta

Ductus Venosus

the fetal structure that allows most of the blood to bypass the liver and to flow from the umbilical vein to the vena cava

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

a record of the electrical activity of the heart that, if abnormal, may indicate heart disease

Endocarditis

inflammation of the endocardium and heart valves

Endocardium

the membrane that lines the cavities of the heart and forms part of the heart valves

Foramen Ovale

Connects the left and right atria, allowing blood to flow directly from the right to the left side of the heart

Hepatic Portal Circulation

system of blood movement through the digestive tract and liver

Mitral Valve

a valve in the heart that guards the opening between the left atrium and the left ventricle

Myocardial Infarction

destruction of heart tissue resulting from obstruction of the blood supply to the heart muscle

Myocardium

thick middle muscle layer of the heart; pumps blood through the circulatory system

P Wave

a type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground

Pacemaker

a specialized bit of heart tissue that controls the heartbeat

Pericardium

a double-layered serous membrane that surrounds the heart

Pulmonary Circulation

circulation of blood from the pulmonary artery through the vessels in the lungs and back to the heart via the pulmonary vein, providing for the exchange of gases

Pulse

the rhythmic contraction and expansion of the arteries with each beat of the heart

Purkinje Fibers

fibers in the ventricles that transmit impulses to the right and left ventricles, causing them to contract

QRS Complex

in ECG corresponding to depolarization of ventrical membranes, much stronger!!

Semilunar Valve

a valve stopping blood from flowing back into the ventricles from the arteries

Sinoatrial Node

small, elongated mass of specialized cardiac muscle tissue just beneath the epicardium in the right atrium near the opening of the superior vena cava-starts impulses

Systemic Circulation

pathway of circulation between the heart and the rest of the body except the lungs

T Wave

in ECG last wave of cardiac cycle corresponding to repolarization

Tricuspid Valve

valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle

Umbilical

relating to or resembling the umbilicus

Vein

a blood vessel that carries blood from the capillaries toward the heart

Ventricle

a chamber of the heart that receives blood from an atrium and pumps it to the arteries

Venule

a minute vein continuous with a capillary

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