How Secure was the USSR's control of Eastern Europe, 1948 -1989

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Hungary, 1956 and Czechoslovakia 1968 Berlin Wall 1961 Solidarity Gorbachev

HUNGARIAN UPRISING 1956: BACKGROUND

Hard-line communist leader called Rakosi in power
Locals live in fear of Secret police and had to pay for Red Army Troops to be in Hungary
JUNE 1956: group within Com. Party oppose Rakosi.
New Leader introduced, Gero. Just as Bad
OCTOBER 1956: Student demonstration. -IMRE NAGY formed com govn.

HUNGARIAN UPRISING 1956:EVENTS

Red Army troops withdraw. councils set up to replace Soviet Power.
NAGY REFORMS GOVN.
1. Free elections
2.private ownership
3.planned to leave Warsaw Pact
4.Hungary neutral in Cold War

HUNGARIAN UPRISING 1956:USSR RESPONSE

Khrushchev sends in troops NOVEMBER 1956
3,000 dead, 7000-8000 russians killed
IMRE NAGY and leader executed

CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1968

...

BACKGROUND TO CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1968

USSR Leader was Leonid Brezhnev
New Leader of CZ was Alexander Dubcek

NEW PROPOSALS BY DUBCEK

"socialism with a human face"
Less censorship, more freedom of speech, reduction of Secret police.
NO Plans to pull out of Warsaw Pact.
Named "Praque Spring" due to radical ideas flying around

USSR RESPONSE

JULY CONFERENCE: dubcek agreed not to have second party.
20th AUGUST 1968: Soviet tanks move into CZ.
No Violent response .
Dubcek removed from power.

BERLIN WALL

SUNDAY 13TH AUGUST 1961- East German troops built fence.
17th AUGUST: BERLIN WAL COMPLETE.

WHY WAS IT BUILT? 1

BRAIN DRAIN from East to West
Showed failure of Communism.
to prevent espionage, West used Berlin as way into East. Ger

WHY WAS IT BUILT? 2

Growing Tension between USA/USSR:
Containment: Vietnam + Bay of Pigs (1961)
US would cross to East to see Soviet Response

FALL OF BERLIN WALL

WHEN: November 1989
Guards throw down weapons and join dismantling wall

SOLIDARITY: ORIGINS

(Gdansk/Danzig shipyard) Solidarity was the ship worker's
union.
Led by LECH WALESA

SOLIDARITY: EVENTS

AUGUST 1980: 21 points put to government -Govn. agrees to all.
Sept 1980 -JAN 1981: membership 3.5 -9.4 million
DEC 1981: 10,000 solidarity leader jailed + Lech Walesa

IMPACT OF SOLIDARITY

Showed people did not believe in Communism any more
Showed Gorbachev could not 'send in the tanks' -public opinion.

FALL OF EAST EUROPE: 1989

MAY: Hungarians dismantle border with Austria
JUNE: free elections in poland
NOVEMBER: Berlin wall destroyed
MARCH 1990: baltic states independant from USSR.

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