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Gamete

a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes

Homologous

term used to refer to chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent

Gene

a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain

Chromosome

threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next

Autosome

any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome

Karyotype

A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs

Allele

one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same locus on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits

Sex Chromosome

a chromosome that determines the sex of an individual

Haploid

an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes

Meiosis

cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms

Recombinant

An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the parents.

Fertilization

the joining of a sperm cell and an egg cell

Mitosis

in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes

Diploid

a cell or organism having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number

Gene Locus

specific location of a gene on a chromosome

Somatic Cell

any of the cells of a plant or animal except the reproductive cells

Genome

complete set of an organism's genetic material

Mutation

an organism that has characteristics resulting from chromosomal alteration

Enzyme

complex protein that is produced by cells and acts as a catalysts in specific biochemical reactions

Protein

an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells

Amino Acid

basic building blocks of protein molecules

Eugenics

the study of methods of improving genetic qualities by selective breeding (especially as applied to human mating)

Transformation

modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA

Antibiotic Selection

scientists use antibiotic resistance genes as genetic makers to identify which bacteria were transformed

Bt Crops

transgenic crops that contain a gene from the bacterial species Bacillus thuringiensis that allows a natural insecticide to be produced in the crop.

Genetic Marker

gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry a plasmid with foreign DNA from those that don't

Restriction Enzyme

enzyme that cuts nucleic acid at specific restriction sites and produces restriction fragments

Round Up Ready Crops

Crops that have been genetically engineered to be resistant to herbicides, so that it can be blanket spread across a field and only kill the weeds

Bacteriophage

a virus that infects bacteria

Plasmid

small ring of DNA found in a bacterial cell that is used as a biological vector

Bacteria

single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus; prokaryotes

Sticky Ends

the uneven ends of a double-stranded DNA molecule that has been cut with a restriction enzyme

Biotechnology

The manipulation of a living organism to produce a different useful product

Genetic Engineering

process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms

Gene Therapy

the replacement of a defective gene with a normal version

Gene Enhancement

attempts to improve a healthy gene

Germline Engineering

altering the genetic make up of specific types of somatic cells within an individual, changes in the sperm, egg, or early embryo where changes will be passed down to offspring and may allow changes in phenotype

Somatic Cell Engineering

Changes in somatic cells, difficult to change in phenotype, changes genetic make up

PGD

a single cell is removed from the 8 cell embryo and tested for possible disorders

IVF

a technique in which eggs are surgically removed from a woman and fertilized with sperm in the laboratory and then put into a women's uterus

GMO

organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques

Transgenic Organism

an organism that contains genes from other organisms

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