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mc/ tf

(true or false)
All proteins are made up of some combination of 20 essential amino acids

False

(true or false)
Like nucleic acids, polypeptides have polarity

True

The primary sequence of the protein determines the quaternary structure of a protein

(true or false)

false

During translation initiation, the initiator tRNAmet binds to the P site of a ribosome

(true or false)

true

During translation initiation in prokaryotes, one rRNA base pairs with a sequence in mRNA to position a ribosome at the start codon.
(true or false)

true

The codon for methionine appears only at the beginning of the mRNA for a protein, not in the middle or in the end.

(true or false)

false

The first three bases at the 5' end of an mRNA are the AUG at which translation begins.

(true or false)

False

Ribosomes move along an mRNA in the 5' to 3' direction.

(true or false)

true

A special tRNA that does not have an attached amino acid binds to stop codons to terminate translation

(true or false)

false

UGG is an example of a stop codon.

(true or false)

false

In eukaryotes, the 5' cap and the 3' poly(A) tail are involved in translation initiation.

(true or false)

true

An mRNA can be translated by only one ribosome at a time.

(true or false)

false

Because there is no nucleus in a prokaryote, the 5' end of an mRNA can be translated while the 3' end is still being transcribed.

(true or false)

true

(see figure)
The next step in the translation of this mRNA will be the formation of a peptide bond between which two amino acids?
a. amino acid 2 and amino acid 3
b. amino acid 2 and amino acid 4
c. amino acid 1 and amino acid 3
d. amino acid 1 and amino acid 2

a. amino acid 2 and amino acid 3

(see figure)
After the peptide bond forms, what will happen?
a. tRNA A will be carrying the polypeptide and it will shift to the P site.
b. tRNA A will be carrying the polypeptide and it will shift to the A site.
c. tRNA B will be carrying the polypeptide and it will shift to the P site.
d. tRNA B will be carrying the polypeptide and it will shift to the A site.

c. tRNA B will be carrying the polypeptide and it will shift to the P site.

(see figure)
What is the function of peptidyl transferase activity?
a. It charges tRNAs.
b. It acetylates the end of a protein after translation.
c. It cleaves the polypeptide from the last tRNA during termination.
d. It moves ribosomes along mRNA during translation.
e. It forms peptide bonds.

e. It forms peptide bonds.

A tRNA anticodon is 5'ICG3'. What amino acid does it carry?
a. ala
b. arg
c. ser
d. pro
e. thr

b. arg

A bacterial protein is encoded by the following mRNA sequence: AUGGUGCUCAUGCCCTAA.... The second methionine codon (AUG) in this mRNA sequence will
a. serve as the initiation codon.
b. encode N-formylmethionine.
c. encode methionine that will eventually be removed.
d. encode unformylated methionine.

d. encode unformylated methionine

To translate a mRNA you require two other RNAs. These are
a. tRNA and mRNA.
b. tRNA and miRNA.
c. tRNA and rRNA.
d. rRNA and siRNA.

c. tRNA and rRNA

The genetic code is said to be "degenerate" because
a. there are more codons than amino acids.
b. there are more amino acids than codons.
c. different organisms use different codons to encode the same amino acid.
d. some codons specify more than one amino acid.

a. there are more codons than amino acids.

The genetic code is universal except for
a. prokaryotes, which use a different genetic code than eukaryotes.
b. a few mitochondrial genes, which substitute one sense codon for another.
c. viruses, which use an entirely different genetic code.
d. archaebacteria, which have their own genetic code.

b. a few mitochondrial genes, which substitute one sense codon for another.

The function of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases is to
a. transcribe tRNA genes.
b. match tRNA anticodons and mRNA codons at the ribosome.
c. attach amino acids to tRNAs.
d. form the peptide bond between amino acids at the ribosome.

c. attach amino acids to tRNAs.

What is the minimum number of different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases required by a cell?
a. 64, one for each codon
b. 61, one for each sense codon
c. 30, one for each different tRNA
d. 50, one for each different tRNA
e. 20, one for each amino acid

e. 20, one for each amino acid

When codons that code for the same amino acid differ in their ________, a single tRNA might bind both of them through wobble base pairing.
a. 5' base
b. middle base
c. 3' base

c. 3' base

An mRNA has the codon 5' UAC 3'. What tRNA anticodon will bind to it?
a. 5' AUG 3'
b. 3' AUG 5'
c. 5' ATC 3'
d. 3' ATC 5'

b. 3' AUG 5'

An mRNA has the stop codon 5'UAA3'. What tRNA anticodon will bind to it?
a. 5'ATT3'
b. 5'AUC3'
c. 5' ACU3'
d. none

d. none

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