Hannah's History, Test 2

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The right to vote is also called the...

A) franchise.

B) turnout.

C) elector.

D) fairness clause.

E) electing.

A) franchise.

The franchise has been expanded...

A) as a reward for military service.

B) when national candidates and political parties expected to gain political advantage from the expansion.

C) due to protest and activism by and on the behalf of disenfranchised groups.

D) slowly and steadily.

E) All of the above.

E) All of the above.

The chief mobilizing agent(s) in modern democracies is (are)...

A) interest groups.

B) political parties.

C) the Registrar of Voters.

D) the states.

E) the media.

B) political parties.

The elitist argument that lower voter turnout is not a problem argues that...

A) nonvoters are less educated and less informed and so would not cast intelligent ballots.

B) those who do not vote are satisfied with the system.

C) only the enthusiastic should vote.

D) registration is the cause of low turnout.

E) nonvoters are less likely to have money to contribute to campaigns.

A) nonvoters are less educated and less informed and so would not cast intelligent ballots.

True or False?

Despite the low turnout levels in the United States, Americans are actually more likely than people in other countries to participate actively in campaigns.

True.

The Voting Rights Act, passed in the 1960s,...

A) allowed African Americans to take advantage of their right to vote.

B) gave suffrage to women.

C) gave African Americans the right to vote.

D) lowered the legal voting age to 18.

E) removed voting rights from officials who denied citizens the right to vote.

A and C are both correct.

Voting age population is defined as...

A) all people in the United States over the age of 18, including those who may not be legally eligible to vote.

B) all people in the United States under the age of 18.

C) all male eligible voters.

D) all voters.

E) none of the above.

A) all people in the United States over the age of 18, including those who may not be legally eligible to vote.

In the United States, voter registration is...

A) automatic.

B) the responsibility of the individual.

C) the responsibility of the community.

D) complicated.

E) not legally required.

B and E are both correct.

Low voter turnout in the United States is a direct result of which of the following?

A) Citizens in most states are required to register to vote, often weeks before the election.

B) Presidential and congressional elections are held on a work day.

C) Americans are called on to vote frequently.

D) Registering to vote is avoided because voters fear a legal process.

E) All of the above.

E) All of the above.

A shift in the behavior of a group that results from a change in the group's compositions, rather than a change in the behavior of individuals already in the group is defined as...

A) stabilization.

B) compositional effect.

C) social correctedness.

D) party loyalty.

E) none of the above.

B) compositional effect.

What must social movements do to maintain momentum and continue long-term work toward their goals?

A) attack their opposition.

B) encourage free riders.

C) institutionalize.

D) appeal to people's emotions.

E) hire public relations consultants.

C) institutionalize.

Federalism and the separation of powers imply what?

A) There are multiple access points to influence policy.

B) That interest groups will fail.

C) That the executive branch is supreme.

D) None of the above.

E) All of the above.

A) There are multiple access points to influence policy.

Noted interest-group scholar James Q. Wilson divides incentives into three main categories that include...

A) time, money, and resources.

B) solidary, material, and purposive.

C) energetic, individual, and constructive.

D) money, energetic, and constructive.

E) resources, purpose, and solidary.

B) solidary, material, and purposive.

People generally join a group such as Save the Whales for...

A) solidary benefits.

B) purposive reasons.

C) material benefits.

D) tangible benefits.

E) religious benefits.

B) purposive reasons.

Which groups can be more successfully deal with the free-rider program?

A) large interest groups.

B) small groups based on narrow purposes.

C) broadly based groups.

D) large groups based on narrow purposes.

E) none of the above.

B) small groups based on narrow purposes.

Specific private goods that an organization provides only to its contributing members are called...

A) selective benefits.

B) company benefits.

C) individual contributions.

D) special interests.

E) none of the above.

A) selective benefits.

An attempt by interest groups and associations to influence elected officials indirectly through their constituents is known as...

A) grass tops lobbying.

B) social work.

C) state government activity.

D) grassroots lobbying.

E) none of the above.

D) grassroots lobbying.

Most political action committees (PACs) donate money...

A) to incumbents, especially to incumbent members of key committees.

B) to only one party.

C) only in presidential elections.

D) only in local elections.

E) anonymously.

A) to incumbents, especially to incumbent members of key committees.

Subgovernments...

A) include a congressional committee, executive agency, and a small number of interest groups.

B) were critical players in agricultural and public works policy in the past.

C) were, in extreme cases, called "iron triangles."

D) all of the above.

E) none of the above.

A) include a congressional committee, executive agency, and a small number of interest groups.

Pluralists believe that politics in America should consist of...

A) a handful of lobbyists who are accountable only to Congress.

B) a competition of groups representing a variety of interests.

C) majority factions.

D) individual involvement, without interest groups.

E) none of the above.

B) a competition of groups representing a variety of interests.

Traditionally, political parties have been defined as...

A) organizations or associations that engage in politics on behalf of their members.

B) groups that have broad-based demands for government action on some problem or issue.

C) groups of like-minded people who band together to take control of government.

D) specialized organizations for raising and contributing election funds.

E) groups who pressure government for policy changes.

C) groups of like-minded people who band together to take control of government.

Party conventions used to be important because they were where...

A) party platforms and presidential and vice-presidential nominees were decided, without the input of ordinary voters.

B) Democrats tended to beat Republicans.

C) a great deal of propaganda and pro-party celebrating happened.

D) ordinary voters cast their ballots for their preferred choice amongst party candidates for president or vice president.

E) the electoral college chose the candidate for president and vice president.

A) party platforms and presidential and vice-presidential nominees were decided, without the input of ordinary voters.

Support for independent and third party candidates generally __________ closer to the election.

A) increases.

B) declines.

C) becomes more vocal.

D) becomes more bitter.

E) becomes an issue of party loyalty.

B) declines.

True or False?

Political parties complicate the electoral system by offering too many options for most offices.

False.

True or False?

Political parties perform organizing and coordinating functions that are essential to democracy.

True.

Which of the following statements about political parties is FALSE?

A) Political parties try to synthesize the interests of the public.

B) Political parties may make a special effort to recruit candidates who will improve the party's image.

C) Democracies without political parties work as efficiently as those with parties.

D) Party labels help voters to anticipate a candidate's beliefs.

E) Competition between political parties can be beneficial.

C) Democracies without political parties work as efficiently as those with parties.

The Third Party system is tied to...

A) Civil War and Reconstruction.

B) The late 1960s.

C) World War I.

D) World War II.

E) the New Deal.

A) Civil War and Reconstruction.

During the Fourth Party System...

A) the Republican Party dominated.

B) the Democratic Party dominated.

C) the Populists rose to major party status.

D) the Progressive party won three presidential elections.

E) none of the above.

A) the Republican Party dominated.

This is a method of choosing party candidates that allows voters instead of party leaders to choose nominees for office.

A) General election.

B) Direct primary election.

C) Run-off election.

D) Special election.

E) Substitute election.

B) Direct primary election.

What do we call an electoral system in which the candidate who receives the most votes in a district, no matter how many votes that may be, automatically wins?

A) A single-member simple plurality (SMSP) system.

B) A majority system.

C) A proportional representation system.

D) A divided government.

E) A realignment.

A) A single-member simple plurality (SMSP) system.

The media tends to focus on ____________ during political campaigns.

A) issues and problems.
B) Congress.
C) facts and statistics.
D) personalities.
E) events.

D) personalities.

For the first 75 years of the United States, almost all newspapers...

A) were proudly and openly partisan.

B) practiced yellow journalism.

C) were carefully nonpolitical.

D) were staffed by large numbers of reporters.

E) were more liberal than most American.s

A) were proudly and openly partisan.

The most recent significant political development in radio communications is...

A) fund raising.

B) talk radio.

C) advertising.

D) local production.

E) news-gathering networks.

B) talk radio.

The media tend to cover political campaigns as...

A) evenly as possible.

B) accurately as they can.

C) issue-oriented contents.

D) horse races.

D) horse races.

True or False?

Most reporters and journalists are experts on the substance or topic of the stories they cover.

False.

Colonial newspapers...

A) were mainly aimed towards the elite.

B) had no reporters.

C) had a very small circulation.

D) were sold only by subscription.

E) all of the above.

E) all of the above.

The legislation that established the Federal Communications Commission also created the equal time rule, which meant that...

A) television had to provide equal amounts of free air time to candidates.

B) stations had to sell time to all legally qualified candidates on equal terms.

C) all broadcasts covering political matters had to be exactly the same.

D) radio and television had to broadcast public service messages.

E) political messages could not be broadcast during prime-time viewing.

B) stations had to sell time to all legally qualified candidates on equal terms.

The FCC regulation enforced between 1949 and 1987 that required stations to air contrasting viewpoints on matters
of public importance and to give public figures who had been criticized on any of the station's programs a free opportunity to respond is called the...

A) fairness doctrine.

B) equal-time rule.

C) political equality doctrine.

D) press pay back.

E) equal access rule.

A) fairness doctrine.

When the media affects the issues and problems people think about, the media engages in...

A) perception manipulation.

B) agenda setting.

C) position labeling.

D) issue identification.

E) none of the above.

B) agenda setting.

What do we call the ability of the media to affect the standards people use toe valuate political figures or the severity of a problem?

A) issue identification.

B) priming.

C) CNN effect.

D) agenda setting.

E) issue manipulation.

B) priming.

The electoral college...

A) votes to determine who will become the nation's president.

B) has the same number of electors as there are House seats.

C) always chooses the candidate who wins the popular vote.

D) casts votes for president but not for vice president.

E) all of the above.

A) votes to determine who will become the nation's president.

Elections held for the purpose of selecting or instructing national convention delegates are called...

A) ballot initiatives.

B) presidential primaries.

C) general elections.

D) white primaries.

E) run-off elections.

B) presidential primaries.

In essence, the 1972 nomination rules changes...

A) allowed ordinary voters to choose the candidates.

B) gave party leaders total control of choosing the candidates.

C) reinforced the mixed system.

D) told states what system to use to choose the candidates.

E) destroyed the two-party system.

A) allowed ordinary voters to choose the candidates.

Caucuses differ from primaries in which of the following ways?

A) The rules are more complicated.

B) They take longer to complete.

C) They required participants to make their preference known publicly.

D) They have smaller turnout.

E) All of the above.

E) All of the above.

Democrats generally reserve slots at the national convention for...

A) superdelegates.

B) those left out of the primaries.

C) congressional staff.

D) members of the opposing party.

E) academics.

A) superdelegates.

The presidential race begins...

A) in January of the election year.

B) a few weeks after the preceding midterm election.

C) the November prior to election year.

D) immediately after the presidential election has completed.

E) none of the above.

B) a few weeks after the preceding midterm election.

Because most of the people who participate in primaries and causes are political activists...

A) Democratic nominees tend to be more liberal than the average voter.

B) Republican nominees tend to be more conservative than the average voter.

C) voters in the general election are often frustrated that the candidates do not represent the majority of ideologically moderate Americans.

D) all of the above.

E) none of the above.

D) all of the above.

If no candidate wins a majority of the electoral votes in the Electoral College, the president is chosen by...

A) a new popular vote.

B) the Senate.

C) the House of Representatives.

D) the Supreme Court.

E) none of the above.

C) the House of Representatives.

A person's subjective feeling of affiliation with a party is called...

A) campaign slogan.

B) party identification.

C) party platform.

D) campaign theme.

E) none of the above.

B) party identification.

The Civil War and Reconstruction period created many Democrats in the south who were deeply committed to the
party and wouldn't vote for a Republican no matter how awful the Democratic candidate was. These die-hard
Democrats were called...

A) white Democrats.

B) yellow dog Democrats.

C) orangemen.

D) soft Democrats.

E) none of the above.

B) yellow dog Democrats.

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