The Wilson Administration
William Jennings Bryan was the Secretary of State, and William Gibbs McAdoo was the Secretary of the Treasury.
President Woodrow Wilson's Inaugural Address
President Woodrow Wilson called the democratically-controlled Congress into a special session in 1913 to consider a reduction of the tariff, a reform of the national banking and currency laws, and improvements in the anti-trust laws.
The Underwood-Simmons Tariff
The 1913 measure that included a twenty-nine percent decrease in the average rates and a graduated income tax to compensate for lost tariff revenue.
The Panic of 1907
The economic downturn that inspired the government to look towards a system that promoted more stability in the banking industry and a currency supply that could expand and contract to meet business needs.
The Republicans' View of the Economy After the Panic of 1907
They wanted a large central bank controlled by private banks.
The Bryanite Democrats' View of the Economy After the Panic of 1907
They wanted a reserve system, as well as currency owned and controlled by the government.
The Conservative Democrats' View of the Economy After the Panic of 1907
They wanted a privately owned, decentralized system that was controlled but free from Wall Street.
The Federal Reserve Act
The 1913 legislation that divided nation into twelve regions with a Federal Reserve Bank in each region and commercial banks in the region that owned the Bank by purchasing stock equal to six percent of their capital and surplus, and elected the directors of the Bank; also, national banks were required to join the system, while state banks were invited.
The Federal Reserve Bank
The Bank created by legislation in 1913, which held the gold reserves of their member banks by rediscounting their commercial and agricultural paper, thus allowing it to control interest rates by altering the discount rate and loaning money out in the form of Federal Reserve Notes backed by mostly paper and partially gold, in order to be able to expand and contract with the volume of business.
The Federal Reserve System
The entity that cleared the checks on member banks, serviced the financial needs of the federal government, and was supervised by the Federal Reserve Board, which consisted of the Secretary of the Treasury, the controller of the currency, and five other members appointed by the president.
The Clayton Antitrust Act
The 1914 legislation that supplemented and interpreted the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 by prohibiting stock ownership by a corporation in a competing corporation, interlocking directorates of competing corporations, price discrimination, and exclusive contracts, as well as held officers of corporations personally responsible for violations of antitrust laws, and removed labor unions and agricultural organizations from consideration.
The Federal Trade Commission Act
The 1914 legislation that prohibited all unfair trade practices without defining them, created a commission of Eve members appointed by the president, was empowered to issue cease and desist order to corporations to stop actions considered to be in restraint of trade, was able to bring suits against uncooperative corporations, and allowed firms to contest the orders in court.
President Woodrow Wilson's foreign policy program that was based on morals, the denouncing of imperialism and "dollar" diplomacy, and the advocation for the advancement of capitalism.
The End of the Progressive Era
The Republicans gained many congressional seats in 1914, and the Democrats favored a broad economic program over a limited, states' rights based government, thus prompting Theodore Roosevelt to run on the Republican ticket in 1916.
The Brandeis Appointment
The appointment of social reform advocate, Louis D. Brandeis to the Supreme Court in 1916, which marked the first step in President Woodrow Wilson's "New Freedom" program.
The Federal Farm Loan Act
The 1916 legislation that divided the country into twelve regions and established a Federal Land Bank in each region, which was funded primarily with federal money and made farm mortgage loans at reasonable interest rates.
The Child Labor Act
The 1916 legislation that forbade the shipment in interstate commerce of products whose production had involved the labor of those under fourteen or sixteen, which represented the first time Congress regulated labor within a state with interstate commerce power, but the Supreme Court overturned it for interfering with the powers of the states in 1918.
The Adamson Act
The 1916 legislation that mandated an eight-hour work day for workers on interstate railroads with time-and-a-half for overtime and a maximum of sixteen hours on a shift, which represented a major victory for the railroad unions and averted a strike.
The Kerr-McGillicuddy Act
The 1916 legislation that initiated a program of workmen's compensation for federal employees.
The Election of 1916
The political contest in which President Woodrow Wilson defeated Republican, Charles Evans Hughes, who did not find an issue as popular as President Wilson's having kept the United States neutral.
The National American Suffrage Association
The women's rights movement that convinced President Woodrow Wilson to support the Nineteenth Amendment, although he originally believed the issue of suffrage should be determined by the individual states.
The Wilson Administration's Approach to Immigration
President Woodrow Wilson opposed immigration restrictions that were proposed by labor unions and reformers, so he vetoed a literacy test for immigrants in 1915, but Congress overrode a similar veto in 1917.
The Conciliation Treaties
The agreements that Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan negotiated with twenty-nine nations under which they agreed to submit disputes to international commissions for conciliation, not arbitration, included provisions for a cooling-off period to prevent wars, and illustrated the idealism of the Wilson Administration because it had no practical effects.
The Wilson Administration's Approach to Japan
The relationship between the United States and Japan suffered because that were floundering after President Woodrow Wilson tried to ban the Japanese from owning land in California in 1913, and the United States had made the Japanese back off from its twenty-one demands on China in 1915.
The Lansing-Ishii Agreement
The agreement between the United States and Japan, which resulted in Japanese recognition of the Open Door Policy in China, while the United States recognized Japan's special interest in China in 1917 and saved the relations between the two nations.
The Bryan-Chamorro Treaty
The agreement between the United States and Nicaragua that allowed the United states the option to build a canal through the country, which practically rendered Nicaragua a protectorate in 1914.
The Wilson Administration's Approach to the Caribbean
President Woodrow Wilson wanted to protect the Panama Canal that opened in 1914, and he wanted to encourage diplomacy and economic growth in the underdeveloped nations of the region, which made him very interventionist.
The Expansion of the United States During the Wilson Administration
The United States purchased the Danish West Indies in 1915, established a government in the Dominican Republic in 1916, and made Haiti and Nicaragua protectorates in 1915.
Francisco "Pancho" Villa
The former Mexican general, who tried to undermine the power of General Victoriano Huerta's successor Venustiano Carranza by provoking the United States' intervention, so he attacked Americans and burned American towns, until President Woodrow Wilson sent a force into Mexico in 1916 that developed tension with the Mexican government because it was an unsuccessful pursuit and an occupation.
The Pan-American Mediation
The head of the Pan-American Union, formerly the International Bureau of American Republics, John Barrett, called for multilateral mediation to stabilize Mexico and hoped to replace the Monroe Doctrine with the Pan-American policy of collective responses and mediation to difficult hemispheric problems in 1914, but President Woodrow Wilson did not want to share power with Latin America.
The Submarine Crisis of 1915
The German use of submarines coupled with the blockade of the Allies and the attacking of unarmed British passenger ships, including the Lusitania that killed 128 Americans, which enraged the American public and resulted in the Germans giving the Arabic Pledge that stopped any attacks on unarmed passenger vessels.
The Gore-McLemore Resolution
The 1915 legislation, which was introduced by Congress and talked down by President Woodrow Wilson that prohibited Americans from traveling on armed ships or ships carrying munitions.
The Sussex Pledge
President Woodrow Wilson's 1916 promise to Germany that the United States would terminate relations, unless the Germans ceased submarine attacks, after the German torpedoes injured seven Americans on a French ship; however, the Germans countered by saying they would resume submarine warfare if the British did not stop violating international law.
The House-Grey Memorandum
The 1915 agreement between the United States and Great Britain that nearly required the United States to enter World War One on the side of the Allies, if the Germans refused to cooperate during the peace proceedings.
The National Defense Act
The 1916 legislature that increased the Army from 90 thousand to 220 thousand and enlarged the National Guard under federal control.
The United States' Mobilization Efforts for World War One
In 1915, President Woodrow Wilson abolished the National Guard, increased the Army, and appropriated funds for the naval construction; however, the nation was divided between the National Security League and the League to Enforce Peace.
President Woodrow Wilson's Final Attempts at Peace
The Germans called for a peace conference in 1916; however, they did not wish for the United States to be present, and President Woodrow Wilson made his last, unsuccessful offer to serve as a neutral mediator of the European conflict.
The Unlimited Submarine Warfare
The 1917 German announcement that it would sink all ships without warning in a large zone off the coast of the Allied nations in the eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean, which was an attempt to win the war before the Americans became involved because the United States had cut off diplomatic relations with Germany.
The Zimmerman Telegraph
The 1917 secret message from the German foreign secretary to the German Minister in Mexico that was decoded by the British and sent to the United States because it proposed that if the United States was at war with Germany, and Mexico attacked the United States, Mexico would be returned the land it lost to the United States, and the Japanese would enter the war; thus, it sparked pro-war sentiments.
The Declaration of War
The 1917 result of the untrustworthiness of the Germans as seen through the Zimmerman telegraph, the realization that armed neutrality would not protect American shipping, the new Russian government appeared more favorable than the tsarist government, and the belief that the United States could hasten the end of the war and play a role in creating an environment for peace.
The Selective Service Act
The 1917 legislation that included all males between the ages of seventeen and forty-six in a lottery for the draft.
The American First Army
The American unit, also known as the American Expeditionary Force, led by General John J. Pershing in 1918, that successfully defended St. Mihiel and employed the Meuse-Argonne offensive, which contributed heavily to the German surrender in 1918.
The Council of National Defense
The 1916 organization comprised of six cabinet members and a seven-member advisor commission of business and labor leaders, who coordinated the industrial mobilization of the United States before it entered World War One; however, it could not force the military to conform with its regulations.
The War Industries Board
The organization established in 1917 that controlled raw materials, production, prices, and labor relations; however, it could not force the military forces to cooperate.
The Overman Act
The 1918 legislation that reinforced the emergency war powers of the president.
The Lever Act
The 1917 legislation that gave the president broad control over the production, price, and distribution of food and fuel.
The Food Administration
The 1917 organization under Herbert Hoover that fixed high prices to encourage the production of goods and encouraged the conservation of food, which was successfully promoted with "Wheatless Mondays" and "Meatless Tuesdays".
The Fuel Administration
The 1917 organization under Harry A. Garfield that was concerned with coal production and conservation, and it successfully saved fuel with "Fuelless Mondays" and "Gasless Sundays".
The United States Railroad Administration
The 1917 organization President Woodrow Wilson established under Secretary of the Treasury, William G. McAdoo to take over and operate all the railroads as one system, as well as pay the owners rent in order to create an efficient railroad system.
The United States Shipping Board
The organization created by Congress in 1916 that coordinated the seizure of enemy ships.
The Emergency Fleet Operation
The subsidiary organization, directed by Edward N. Hurley, that was established by the United States Shipping Board to buy, build, lease, and operate merchant ships for the war effort beginning in 1917.
The Revenue Act
The 1918 legislation that imposed a personal income tax of six percent on incomes up to $4,000, imposed a twelve percent on incomes above $4,000, and increased the graduated surtax to its maximum.
The Committee of Public Information
The organization headed by George Greel established by President Woodrow Wilson in 1917 in order to censor the press, put out pro-American and anti-German propaganda, and encourage people through local Liberty Leagues to report suspicious activity.
The American Protective League
One of the pro-American volunteer organizations that searched for draft dodgers, enforced the sale of bonds, reported suspicious activity, publicly humiliated those who did not buy bonds, persecuted Germans, and helped to fuel anti-German and pro-American sentiments during World War One.
The Espionage Act
The 1917 legislation that provided fines and imprisonment for persons who made false statements that aided the enemy, incited rebellion in the military, or obstructed recruitment or the draft, and it excluded printed matter that advocated for treason or insurrection from the mail.
The Sedition Act
The 1918 legislation that forbade any criticism of the government, flag, or uniform, even if there were not detrimental consequences, and expanded the mail exclusion.
Eugene V. Debs
The Socialist presidential candidate, who was jailed in 1919 for his criticism of America's decision to enter World War One and of the possibility of militarism.
The movie producer, who was jailed and fined in 1919 for his film "The Spirit of '76" that depicted the British in a negative light because it was about the American Revolutionary War.
Shenck v. United States
The 1919 Supreme Court Case, in which the Court stated that Congress could limit free speech, when the words represented a "clear and present danger", thus upholding the Espionage Act.
Abrams v. United States
The 1919 Supreme Court Case, in which the Court upheld the Sedition Act.
Disenfranchised Groups on the Home Front During World War One
The African-American move into the more urban areas sparked resentment by white residents; however, the influx of women in traditionally male fields contributed positively to the women's suffrage movement.
The 1918 legislation that prohibited the manufacture, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages, which was sparked by anti-German sentiment, a need to conserve grain, and the need for sober military personnel.
President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points
President Woodrow Wilson's 1918 attempt to make the world safe for democracy, which included open peace treaties, freedom of the seas, free trade, arms reduction, a fair adjustment of colonial claims, the creation of an independent Poland, self-determination for European nations, the adjustment of boundaries, and the general association of nations.
The Election of 1918
The political contest that resulted in the Republicans becoming the majority in both the congressional houses because the public cared more about domestic than foreign policy and President Woodrow Wilson claimed that voting for the Republicans would repudiate his leadership in Europe.
The Armistice of World War One
The German Chancellor, Max of Baden began peace negotiations with President Woodrow Wilson by evacuating France and forming a civilian government, and after the German Emperor abdicated, the new German government representatives signed an armistice in 1919.
The Paris Peace Conference
The 1919 meeting between President Woodrow Wilson, Prime Minister David Lloyd George, Premier Georges Clemenceau, and Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando that determined the Treaty of Versailles and turned the Republicans against President Woodrow Wilson because he did not take any of them in the United States delegation.
The Soviet Union's Separate Peace
The Soviet Union, established in 1917, sued for peace with Germany in 1918, and the United States sent troops into Russia in order to fend off the Germans and try to persuade the Russians to reenter the war.
The Treaty of Versailles
The 1919 agreement between the United States, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Germany that included the formation of the League of Nations, the acceptance of German responsibility for the war, the demobilization of Germany, the seizure of Germany territories, the new nations of Yugoslavia, Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Finland exercised self-determination.
The American Public's Response to the Paris Peace Conference
The American public refused to join the League of Nations because it wanted to remain isolationist, after World War One.
The Americans who were unwilling to accept the United States' entrance into the League of Nations under any circumstances.
The Americans who were willing to accept the United States' entrance into the League of Nations with some minor adjustments, who were led by Henry Cabot Lodge.
The Aftermath of World War One
The United States became the economic and political leader of the world, Germany pulled itself up with the support of vengeful Nazi Adolf Hitler, Russia became the Communist Soviet Union, and the remainder of Europe began to rebuild.
The Esch Cummings Act
The 1920 legislation, also known as the Transportation Act, which returned railroads to private ownership and operation.
The Demobilization of the United States
The United States brought home the American Expeditionary Force, provided for veterans using the Veterans' Bureau, funded relief for Europe, disbanded wartime industries, and extended the power of the Interstate Commerce Commission to control its rates and financial affairs..
The Seattle Strike
The 1919 strike of all the unions for higher pay for the shipyard workers, which was widely condemned and broken up by the marines.
The Boston Police Strike
The 1919 strike for the right to unionize that required the Governor of New Jersey, Calvin Coolidge to call out the National Guard, speak out against strikes, and fire the workers.
The American Federation of Labor Strike
The 1919 strike that resulted when Judge Elbert H. Gary, the head of United States Steel, refused to negotiate to reorganize the steel industry and was subsided by the state and federal troops after much violence.
The United Mine Workers of America Strike
The 1919 strike led by John L. Lewis for shorter hours and higher wages that resulted in the Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer obtaining injunctions, the union calling off the strike, and an arbitration board giving the workers a wage increase.
The Red Scare
The anti-Communist and xenophobic hysteria that resulted from the United States' fear of the spread of the Russian Communist Revolution and the increased amount of strikes during 1919.
The Palmer Raids
The actions conducted by Attorney General and Democrat-Nominee hopeful, A. Mitchell Palmer, that consisted of arrests and deportations, which perpetuated the Red Scare until he claimed that communist riots were planned for May Day of 1920, and the statement was proven false.
The Intelligence Division
The faction of the Justice Department that Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer established in 1919 to collect information about radicals.
The Race Riots
The 1919 result of the white veterans returning from World War One and finding their jobs filled by African-Americans, that spread across the nation and was mirrored in the South by an increased amount of lynchings.