← AP US History Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All The Homestead Plant Strike 1892 saw several displaced workers opening fire on a barge loaded with 300 Pinkerton agents who were brought in to break the strike. A battle raged for several hours, and, in the end, three Pinkerton agents and seven strikers were killed. A total defeat for the workers and for unionism as a whole. FDR's foreign affairs policies towards Europe and Asia FDR sought to maintain U.S. isolationism by virtually ignoring the events in China and Europe, specifically the Japanese invasion of China, and the rise of Hitler and Mussolini in Europe. Further supporting isolationism was the fact that an overwhelming number of Americans felt that the U.S. involvement in World War I had been a mistake. The entry of the U.S. in the United Nations in 1945 showed the change in foreign policy the nation had made since World War I The Ostend Manifesto presented when a U.S. delegation met with Spain in Belgium, declared America's ambitions to acquire Cuba. It strongly suggested that the United States would take Cuba by force if Spain refused to sell. It was vigorously denounced as a plot to extend slavery and the offer was withdrawn. It was a political fiasco for President Franklin Pierce. South Carolina Exposition and Protest Vice President John Calhoun authored this, condemning the Tariff of 1828. Calhoun claimed that the tariff was ruinous to southern plantation owners and that ultimately South Carolina had the right to nullify actions concerning the tariff. This brought up the argument of states rights and secession in 1828. Fears were calmed when an agreement was reached modifying the tariff. Ida Tarbell her exposés detailed Rockefeller's abusive business practices with his company, Standard Oil The Bay of Pigs invasion in April 1961 a foreign affairs fiasco for JFK. The Cubans captured Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-backed troops and the attempt to overthrow Castro failed. The Declaration of Independence borrowed its core ideas from Enlightenment philosophers, especially John Locke. According to the Kentucky Resolutions and Virginia Resolutions (1798), written in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts (1798), Jefferson and Madison argued that a law of Congress could be declared unconstitutional by an individual state The Hartford Convention in 1814 highlighted the secessionist movement of the Federalist Party, brought on by the party's opposition to the War of 1812. When the secessionist movement was abandoned, and the public outcry against such an idea increased, the party could not recover. Its ultimate "death" came in 1820 when the party ceased to play a significant role in the election. Martin Luther King Jr.'s march on Washington in 1963 was in support of the Civil Rights Act proposed by JFK. In his televised civil rights address on June 11, 1963, Kennedy stated, "Next week I shall ask the Congress of the United States to act, to make a commitment it has not fully made in this century to the proposition that race has no place in American life or law. The federal judiciary has upheld that proposition in the conduct of its affairs, including the employment of federal personnel, the use of federal facilities, and the sale of federally financed housing. I am, therefore, asking the Congress to enact legislation giving all Americans the right to be served in facilities which are open to the public—hotels, restaurants, theaters, retail stores, and similar establishments." This became the groundwork for the Civil Rights Act of 1964 after JFK's death. Crime of '73 government removed silver as currency in response to it's higher value when sold in the jewelry market Bland-Allison Act (1878) US to purchase between $2 million and $4 million of silver each month to be coined into silver dollars; ultimately ineffective Sherman Silver Purchase Act treasury would by 4.5 million ounces of silver monthly and it was paid in treasury notes redeemable in either gold or silver. Cleveland repeals Panic of 1893 Railroads failed from over-extension, causes business and bank failures Mark Twain Coined the phrase "gilded age" to describe it as rotting beneath the surface Henry Adams famous historian who analyzed the gilded age Gilded Age laissez-faire government despite industrial problems, political spoils and patronage, municipal corruption, battles over tariffs/coinage, closer elections with high voter turnout Pendleton Act required Civil service examination for government jobs to prevent spoils system Dawes Act An act that removed Indian land from tribal possesion, redivided it, and distributed it among individual Indian families. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote individualism. Specie Resumption Act of '75 recalled all paper currency from circulation and tried to lower tariffs McKinley Tariff 1890 tariff that raised protective tariff levels by nearly 50%, making them the highest tariffs on imports in the United States history Sherman Antitrust Act First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions Wilson-Gorman Tariff Meant to be a reduction of the McKinley Tariff, it would have created a graduated income tax, which was ruled unconstitutional. Coxey's Army unemployed workers marched from ohio to wahsington to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for goverment relief; arrested and dispersed The Second Great Awakening Wave of religious revivals around 1800 that encouraged a culture of evangelicalism responsible for an upswing in prison reform, the temperance cause, the feminist movement, and abolition. Charles Grandison Finney An evangelist who was one of the greatest preachers of all time (spoke in New York City). He also made the "anxious bench" for sinners to pray and was was against slavery and alcohol. Peter Cartwright best known of the Methodist traveling frontier preachers; ill-educated, strong servant of the Lord who spent 50 years traveling from Tennessee to Illinois while calling upon sinners to repent; converted thousands with his bellowing voice and flailing arms; physically knocked out those who tried to break up his meetings Joseph Smith Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. 1843, Smith's announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844; translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr. Dorothea Dix A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War. Horace Mann Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he was a prominent proponent of public school reform, and set the standard for public schools throughout the nation. Noah Webster Created the first dictionary, "schoolmaster of the republic" William H. McGuffey Ohio teacher-preacher. His grade-school readers, first published in the 1830's, sold 122 million copies. The readers had home lasting lessons in morality, patriotism, and idealism. Lucretia Mott A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's right convention in New York in 1848. Susan B. Anthony social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Association Sarah and Angelina Grimke Quaker sisters from South Carolina who came north and became active in the abolitionist movement Seneca Falls Convention Stanton wrote and delivered "declaration of sentiments"; women's movement now organized and targeting suffrage in addition to abolition/temperance Transcendentalism was a movement that sought to explore the relationship between humans and nature through emotions rather than reason; a turning away from the overtly public revivals of the Second Great Awakening Ralph Waldo Emerson Unitarian minister background, philosopher, abolitionist, inspirational speaker and backer of American literature and art, author Henry David Thoreau poet and writer who shunned conformity; author of "Walden" and "Civil Disobedience" Walt Whitman "poet laureate of democracy"; wrote "Leaves of Grass" Hudson River School infuse paintings with a romantic, emotional, idealized view of the American and natural settings Washington Irving first to be recognized internationally, Dutch-American humorous writings, American Romanticism, "Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip van Winkle" James Fenimore Cooper United States novelist noted for his stories of indians and the frontier life (1789-1851) Louisa May Alcott American writer and reformer best known for her largely autobiographical novel Little Women (1868-1869). Dissenters Edgar Allen Poe, Melville Oliver Wendell Holmes was a physician by profession but achieved fame as a writer; he was one of the best regarded American poets of the 19th century.