equal concentrations outside and inside the cell
larger concentration of substance outside the cell, causes water to move out.
smaller concentration of substance outside the cell, causes water to move in.
occurs as a result of hypovolemia. loss of volume in the extracellular fluid compartment
the motivational state that arises when cells become dehydrate in an attempt to dilute a highly concentrated extracellular fluid compartment
an enzyme triggered by baroreceptors near the kidney which turns into angiotensin II
helps reabsorb sodium
anti-diuretic hormone. released by posterior pituitary, encourages kidney to reabsorb water.
on the blood side of the BBB. communicates with median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) to promote drinking
median preoptic nucleus (MnPO)
around the ventricles
receptor that detects drop in blood pressure
detects changes in osmotic pressure. stimulate drinking behavior
form of stored glucose
a hormone released from the pancreas that converts glycogen back into glucose
pancreatic hormone that helps store glucose in the liver
hormone that provides a chronic signal about the fat levels and stimulates arcuate POMC/CART and NPY/AgRP neurons to trigger changes in food intake
as leptin increases, food intake decreases. tryglicerides, and the role of leptin from fat
monitors energy balance. contains 2 opposing systems for controlling food intake, each which responds to peptide signals.