Homework Questions for BIO final!

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If a researcher collects data by using the same experimental setup as in another study, but using different research subjects, the process is considered:

replication.

You hear the males of a particular bird species calling in their natural environment and question why they call. You design an experiment to try to answer your question. You cage one male bird and record his calling rate in response to four treatments, varying the number of conspecific (of the same species) males and the number of conspecific females that the male subject can see. The treatments are: no conspecific birds; 10 conspecific males; 10 conspecific females; 5 conspecific males and 5 conspecific females. Your results are: the rate at which the male subject calls is the same across all four treatments. Which of the following is a null hypothesis that your experimental design could reject?

Males of the species call at a rate that is independent of the sex composition of the audience.

An independent variable:

can cause a change in a dependent variable.

Statistical methods make it possible to

determine how likely it is that certain results have occurred by chance.

Anecdotal evidence:

can seem to reveal links between two phenomena, but the links may not actually exist.

A relationship between phenomena that has been established based on large amounts of observational and experimental data is referred to as:

a theory.

Which of the following issues would be least helped by application of the scientific method?

formulating public policy on euthanasia

What is the meaning of the statement "correlation does not imply causation"?

Just because two variables vary in a similar pattern does not mean that changing one variable causes a change in the other.

A _____________ is a pill that looks identical to a pill that contains the active ingredient in a scientific trial, but contains no active ingredient itself.

placebo

Some have claimed that the herb echinacea reduces the likelihood of catching the common cold. In many hundreds of studies, this claim has been refuted. Assuming these studies were properly conducted, which of the following is a scientifically responsible claim that an echinacea advocate could make in support of further research on this subject.

Only a) and c) are scientifically responsible claims that an echinacea advocate could make in support of further research on this subject.

Which of the following is the BEST way to state the relationship between "data" and "results"?

"Data" are the facts you collect from your experiment, while "results" are your interpretation of what the data mean.

Scientific theories do not represent speculations or guesses about the natural world. Rather they are hypotheses—proposed explanations for natural phenomena—that have been:

so strongly and persuasively supported by empirical observation that the scientific community views them as unlikely to be altered by new evidence.

In controlled experiments:

one variable is manipulated while others are held constant.

In a randomized, controlled, double-blind study:

neither the experimenter nor the subject know whether the subject is in a control group or an experimental group.

An experimental condition applied to research subjects is called a:

treatment.

Which of the following is the BEST description of a control group in an experiment?

The control group is identical to each test group except for one variable.

In a scientific study, the dependent variable is:

a measurable entity whose value always fluctuates up and down, closely following changes in another variable.

In a line graph, the value of the independent variable is:

represented on the x-axis.

Visual displays, such as graphs, are used in scientific presentations because:

C. they allow for easier comparisons between data sets than do data tables.
D. they condense large amounts of information into an easily digested form.
Both c) and d) are correct.

Statistical methods make it possible to:

determine how likely it is that certain results may have occurred by chance.

If a report states, "the female subjects in the study are 5 feet 6 inches ± 3 inches," this indicates that:

two thirds of the women are between 5 feet 3 inches and 5 feet 9 inches.

The set of analytical and mathematical tools designed to help researchers gain understanding from the data they gather is called:

statistics.

If you toss a coin and it comes up tails on eight consecutive tosses, what is the likelihood it will come up heads on the ninth toss?

1/2

In a series of studies, researchers found a statistically significant positive correlation between the number of fire fighters present at a fire and the amount of damage that the fire does. Which of the following is the BEST conclusion to be drawn from these studies?

Statistical data must be put in its proper context to be understood.

The atomic number of carbon is 6. Its nucleus must contain:

6 neutrons and 6 protons.

The second orbital shell of an atom can hold ___ electrons.

8

A covalent bond is formed when:

two atoms share electrons.

An element:

is a substance that cannot be broken down chemically into any other substance.

The nucleus of an atom is usually made up of:

protons, which a positive charge, and neutrons, which have no electrical charge.

Relative to protons:

electrons have significantly less mass.

The four most abundant elements in living organisms are:

hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon.

All matter on earth, both living and non-living, is made up of:

atoms.

Some atoms of an element contain more neutrons or fewer neutrons than the most commonly found "version" of the atoms for that element. These "alternate versions" of the standard atom are called:

isotopes.

Which of the following elements have four electrons in their outer shells?

carbon and silicon

An atom can be changed into an ion by adding or removing:

an electron.

Helium is not a reactive molecule because:

its first-level shell is full with two electrons.

There are three principal types of bonds that hold multiple atoms together. These are:

covalent bonds, ionic bonds, and hydrogen bonds.

Multiple atoms linked together are collectively called a(n):

molecule.

Which of the following molecules is NOT formed by covalent bonding?

NaCl

One important difference between covalent and ionic bonds is that:

in covalent bonds two atoms share electrons while in ionic bonds two atoms of opposite charge are attracted to each other.

Water molecules form which type of bond with other water molecules?

covalent bonds

How many hydrogen bonds are explicitly represented in this figure?

4

The tendency of molecules to stick together, called cohesion, is stronger in water than in other liquids because:

the polarity of water allows a hydrogen atom from one water molecule to form a hydrogen bond with the oxygen atom of another water molecule.

The most abundant molecule in the cell is:

water.

Why do coastal areas have milder, less variable climates than inland areas?

Large bodies of water, especially oceans, can absorb huge amounts of heat from the sun during warm times of the year, reducing temperature increases on the land. Similarly, during cold times of year the ocean slowly cools, giving off heat that reduces the temperature drop on shore.

Which of the following is NOT a property of water?

It is a good solvent because both polar and nonpolar molecules dissolve in it.

Which of the following statements BEST explains the observation that there are more autism cases now than in the past?

Doctors are more aware of the condition and have better techniques for diagnosing and reporting it.

When a chewing gum manufacturer makes the claim, "Four out of five dentists surveyed recommend sugarless gum for their patients that chew gum," how many dentists need have been surveyed for the statement to be factually accurate?

five

Anecdotal evidence:

can appear to reveal links between two phenomena that do not actually exist.

All of the following are branches of biology EXCEPT:

geology.

Which of the following areas is NOT heavily influenced by biology?

Biology heavily influences ALL of these areas.

Which of the following is NOT of central importance to the study of biology?

the technical application of research findings

Carbohydrates:

A. act as a relatively quickly available source of fuel.
B. serve as carbon skeletons that can be rearranged to form other molecules that are essential for biological structures and functions like nucleic acids.
C. in the form of oligosaccharides are often covalently bonded to proteins and lipids on the outer cell surface, where they serve as cell recognition signals.
D. are a good source of sustained energy when they come in the form of polysaccharides.
E. All of the above= ANSWER

Which of the following are all monosaccharides?

glucose, fructose, and galactose

lucose that circulates in your blood has one of three fates: it is used to fuel cellular activities, it can be converted into fat, or it can _______.

be stored temporarily as glycogen

Lactose is a combination of:

glucose and galactose.

A complex polymer built of monosaccharides is called a(n):

polysaccharide.

Glycogen belongs in the class of molecules known as:

polysaccharides.

Sucrose (table sugar) and lactose (the sugar found in milk) are examples of:

disaccharides.

Which of the following is a polysaccharide?

cellulose, the primary component of plant cell walls

On food packages, "insoluble fiber" refers to plant material that we can't fully digest but is important for maintaining a healthy digestive tract. This substance refers to a(n):

carbohydrate.

Which of the following statements about cellulose is FALSE?

A. The cellulose we eat passes right through our digestive system unused.
B. Cellulose has a slightly different three-dimensional structure from starch.
C. Although it is not digestible, cellulose is still important to humans' diets.
D. Cellulose and starch are made from similar molecules.
E. All of the above statements about cellulose are TRUE.

Which of the following is not an important biological function of lipids?

A. insulation
B. regulation of growth and development
C. energy storage
D. protection of internal organs and tissues
E. All of the above are true- ANSWER

The figure represents which class of chemical compounds?
( couldn't copy the picture.. but hopefully the words in the question will help us signify which picture it is?)

sterols

All lipids are:

not soluble in water.

An unsaturated fatty acid is one in which:

carbon-carbon double bonds are present in the hydrocarbon chain.

Saturated fatty acids have _________________ than unsaturated fatty acids, which is why they exist as a ____________ at room temperature.

fewer double bonds; solid

Which statement about phospholipids is FALSE?

Because their phosphate groups repel each other, they are used as organisms' chief form of short-term energy.

Which of the following is a common role that sterols play in the human body?

None of the above is true about sterols.

The principal components of cell membranes are:

lipids.

Phospholipids assemble spontaneously into bilayers driven by the attraction of their "tail" portions to each other and of their "head" portions to each other. The tail regions are:

hydrophobic.

ll of the following are roles played by protein in the body EXCEPT:

transmission of electrical impulses.

All of the following are components of a single amino acid EXCEPT:

All of the above are components of a single amino acid.

In dietary terms, a "complete" protein is one that:

contains all of the essential amino acids.

Which of the following statements is NOT true of amino acids?

They are distinguished from each other by variation in their carboxyl groups.

A polypeptide chain is a linear polymer of amino acids. Peptide bonds are present between which of the two following groups?

the carbon atom of the carboxyl group and the nitrogen atom of the amino group

The secondary structure of a protein refers to:

the twisting of the amino acid chain into a corkscrew-like shape or into a zigzag folding pattern.

A complex polymer built of amino acids is called a(n):

polypeptide.

Enzymes are composed of:

amino acids.

Enzymes

increase the rate at which a reaction occurs.

Which of the following statements about enzymes is NOT true?

Enzymes are permanently changed when they take place in a chemical reaction.

Phosphate groups are important components of:

A. triglycerides.
B. nucleic acids.
C. amino acids.
D. structural polysaccharides.
E. All of the above are correct- ANSWER

DNA is made of:

nucleotides.

An amino acid is to a polypeptide as:

a nucleotide is to a nucleic acid.

A partial sequence of a molecule is "AACTGCT." The molecule is:

a nucleic acid.

Which type of macromolecule is an informational molecule?

DNA

n DNA, adenine from one strand binds to ______ in the complementary strand.

thymine

Which of the following nucleotide bases are present in equal amounts in DNA?

adenine and thymine

One of the four nucleotide bases in DNA is replaced by a different base in RNA. Which base is it, and what is it replaced by?

thymine, replaced by uracil

Phenylketonuria is an inherited disorder. Affected individuals have a defective enzyme called phenylalanine hydroxylase. The substance these individuals cannot break down is a(n):

amino acid.

Which of the following would influence the rate of an enzyme catalyzed reaction?

A. substrate concentration
B. temperature
C. pH
D. presence of inhibitors or activators
E. All of the above influence enzymatic rate.

Beta-blockers do all of the following EXCEPT:

bind to the cytoplasmic side of a receptor protein.

The figure shows the action of beta-blockers in reducing anxiety. In this diagram, the triangular wedges represent ________________, the figures with rectangular tops and triangular bottoms represent ______________, and the ovals represent ______________.

adrenaline; beta-blocker chemicals; beta-receptors

Which of the following is the most important factor governing a cell's particular type of interaction with other cells

the pattern of proteins on the cell's surface

The net movement of molecules from locally concentrated regions to uniform distributions is best described as:

diffusion.

Which of the following BEST defines diffusion?

net movement of particles from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration

Sugar and CO2 are dissolved in water to make carbonated soft drinks. Which of the following is the solute?

the sugar and the CO2

If the concentrations of a particular molecule are equal on both sides of the membrane, facilitated diffusion will:

be ineffective.

in aquatic environments, water moves _____________.

down the water-concentration gradient

You are bored at a lunch meeting and surreptitiously place a raisin in your glass of water. The raisin swells to twice its original size. Relative to the water, the raisin must have been:

hypertonic.

Which of the following BEST summarizes the differences between osmosis and diffusion?

Osmosis deals only with water.

In the figure, the round, knobby structures are _______________ and the Y-shaped post-like structures with semicircular receptors are ________________.

HIV particles; CD4 markers

the passive transport of water across a membrane from a solution of lower-solute concentration to a solution of higher-solute concentration is best described as:

osmosis.

Active transport, the moving of molecules from areas of low concentration to those of high concentration across the membrane, is usually coupled to processes that

cost energy.

The movement of H+ ions into the stomach represented in this figure is accomplished through:

active transport.

The primary function of molecular membranes is the transport of ions and molecules in and out of cells. The movement of molecules from areas of low concentration to those of high concentration against chemical gradients is best described as:

active transport.

You measure the concentration of a polar molecule inside and outside of a cell. You find that the concentration is high and gradually increasing inside the cell. You also measure the ATP concentration inside the cell and find that it is dropping. What would be your best hypothesis for the process that is occurring?

active transport

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, some bacteria, and some protistans use the energy from sunlight to produce sugar, which _______________ converts to ATP, the "fuel" used by all living things.

cellular respiration

Life gains most of its energy from:

sunlight.

Which of the following statements best represents the relationship between respiration and photosynthesis?

Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules, while respiration releases it.

Potential energy:

is contained in matter placed in certain positions or arrangements.

A cyclist rides her bike up a very steep hill. Pick from the following choices the one that properly describes this example in energetic terms.

A. Potential energy in food is converted to kinetic energy as muscles push the cyclist up the hill.
D. Gravity provides a source of potential energy
E. Both a) and d) are correct.

Which of the following is NOT a form of kinetic energy?

a covalent bond linking phosphate molecules

Every time a source of energy is converted from one form to another:

some of the energy is converted to heat, which is one of the least usable forms of kinetic energy.

Within the study of thermodynamics, a closed system is defined as a system in which energy does not come in and energy does not go out. Which of the following is considered a closed system?

the universe

When ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP, what happens?

One phosphate is removed.

Each ATP molecule is composed of three separate subunits. Which of the following is NOT a proper description of one of these subunits?

three carbon-nitrogen rings

The phosphate groups in ATP:

A. are covalently bonded to each other.
B. represent a significant source of stored energy.
C. are negatively charged.
D. release energy when separated from the rest of the molecule.
E. All of the above are correct.- ANSWER

Which of the following is NOT a product of photosynthesis?

carbon dioxide

A green plant can carry out photosynthesis if given nothing more than:

water, light, and air.

Which by-product of photosynthesis was important in altering the atmosphere of the earth so that aerobic organisms could evolve?

oxygen

Carotenoids:

are accessory pigments in chloroplasts that protect the chlorophyll by absorbing excessive light energy.

A pigment that transmits all wavelengths of visible light appears:

white.

Chlorophyll b and the carotenoids are important as receptors of light energy because they:

respond to wavelengths different from the wavelengths that chlorophyll a responds to.

The most effective portion(s) of the visible spectrum in driving photosynthesis is (are):

A. the violet-blue portion.
C. the red-orange portion.
E. Both a) and c) are correct.

Biologically speaking, a pigment:

is a molecule that absorbs a photon.

A plant whose leaves are reddish-yellow is NOT absorbing light from which wavelengths of the visible-light spectrum?

red and yellow

During photosynthesis, visible light has enough energy to directly:

excite electrons.

What are the resulting products of the splitting of water in photosynthesis?

electrons, oxygen, and hydrogen ions

Oxygen gas produced during photosynthesis originates as:

oxygen atoms contained in water molecules.

The carbon dioxide needed for photosynthesis enters the plant through the:

stomata.

Anaerobic mammals:

do not exist.

Cellular respiration is the process by which:

energy from the chemical bonds of food molecules is captured by an organism.

Energy used in cellular respiration can originate from:

carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

An inherited disease results from abnormal mitochondria passed from mother to child. Using your knowledge of the function of mitochondria within human cells, which of the following is the most likely description of the symptoms of this disease?

extreme muscle weakness

Cellular respiration is an efficient process that captures approximately 35% of the energy in glucose. From 1 molecule of glucose, it yields:

30 to 32 ATP, depending on the tissue and organism.

A person's unique DNA is carried within some of the cells and tissues of their body. These include all of the following EXCEPT:

All of the above contain a person's DNA.

DNA is now often used as evidence in criminal trials. It is particularly useful because it can be found in:

A. hair.
B. saliva.
C. blood.
D. dead skin cells.
E. All of the above are correct.-ANSWER

Double-stranded DNA that contains a high G-C content requires a higher temperature in order to separate the two DNA strands. This is because:

G-C base pairing involves three hydrogen bonds while A-T pairing involves only two.

The Russian-American biochemist Phoebus Levene was the first to determine that nucleotides may contain one of four different nitrogen-containing bases. Levene believed that the nitrogen-containing bases occurred in equal amounts in DNA. What is the actual proportion of these bases?

DNA contains equal amounts of adenine and thymine, and equal amounts of guanine and cytosine.

The double helix model of DNA suggested by Watson and Crick was exciting to the scientific community because:

it explained how genetic material could be duplicated by means of the complementary strands.

Most genes come in alternative forms called:

alleles.

The human genome is composed of approximately how many base pairs?

3 billion

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