1. Why is the heart considered to be two pumps functionally?
The right atrium and right ventricle serve functionally as one pump for ejecting blood to the lungs, and the left atrium and left ventricle pump blood to the systemic circulation
2. Cardiac cells are connected by intercalated disks and a fusion of cell membranes to form a ________
3. Depolarization of cardiac cells is characterized by a rapid influx of _________ ions a slower influx of _________ ions and the outflow of __________
Sodium, calcium, potassium
4. An relatively long ________ is important to cardiac cells to prevent a constant state of contraction form recycling impulses.
5. Define chronotropic and inotropic effects in relation to the heart.
Chronotropic refers to the rate of contraction, whereas inrotropic refers to the force or strength of contraction
6. Define preload and afterload in relation to the pumping mechanism of the heart .
Preload is the volume of blood in the ventricles at the end of diastole ( the amount of blood that must be pumped out) Afterload is the resistance in the arteries that he ventricle must overcome to pump load
7. List the four basic compensatory mechanisms of the cardiovascular system.
Increasing the heart rate, increasing the stroke volume, increasing the efficiency of the heart muscle, and heart enlargement
8. List five objectives of treatment for heart failure.
Control rhythm disturbances, maintain or increase cardiac output, relieve fluid accumulations, increase the oxygenation of blood, and heart enlargement
9. List four beneficial effects and one potential toxic effect of the use of the cardiac glycosides.
Beneficial effects include improved cardiac contractility, decreased heart rate, antiarrhythmic effect, and decreased signs of dyspena. A toxic effect is vomiting
10. Catecholamines such as epinephrine are used in veterinary cardiology primary for _______.
Stimulation of cardiac contraction in cardiac arrest
11. List five factors that may predispose the heart to arrhythmias.
Conditions that cause hypoxia; electrolyte imbalances; increased levels or sensitivity to catecholamines; certain drugs such as digitalis, barbiturates, and others; and cardiac trauma or disease
12. List six categories of antiarrhythmic drugs and give an example of each.
Class IA-quinidine Class IB-Lidocaine Class IC-flecainide Class II-propanolol; Class III-bretylium Class IV- diltiazam
13. List four vasodilator drugs and classify each as arteriodilator venodilator, or mixed
Hydralazine- arteriolar dilator; nitroglycerin- venodilator; prazosin- combined; enalapril-combined
14. Why is Lasix sometimes called a loop diuretic?
Lasix is called a loop diuretic because it inhibits reabsorption of sodium in the loops of Henle
15. The use of many diuretics can lead to a dangerous loss of what electrolyte?
16. List five ancillary methods of treatment for cardiovascular disease?
Bronchodilation, oxygen therapy, sedation, aspiration, and centesis
17. _________ is characterized by the rapid influx of sodium ions into the cell though channels the slower the influx of calcium ions and the outflow of potassium ions.
18. The amount of blood that the heart is capable of pumping per minute is called _______
19. _________ results when the pumping ability of the heart if impaired to the extent that sodium and water are retained in an effort to compensate for inadequate cardiac output
Congestive Heart Failure
20. ACE causes the conversion of _______ to ______
Angiotensin I to angiotensin II
21. Nitroglycerin is supplied as in ointment. List the precautions that should be taken when applyin.
Wear gloves, rotate application sites; do not pet the animal at the application site; measure the dosage in inches; and contact the vet if a rash appears at the application site
22. What diuretic is used most commonly in the treatment of heart failure?
23. What is hypokalemia?
An abnormally low potassium level in the blood
24. What are the primary goals of the dietary management of heart disease?
Sodium restriction (1), maintenance of good body weight and condition (2)
25. List three effects of dministration of catecholamines
Increased force of contraction(1); an increase in blood pressure(2); elevated blood glucose levels
26. The heart is a _______-chambered pump that is responsible for moving blood though vascular system?
27. _______ is a faster-than-normal heart rate
28. When situations cause spontaneous depolarization of cardiac muscle or abnormalities of the conduction system, _______ may occur
29. All the following (except one) are ways by which the cardiovascular system may increase is output during times of need, such as during athletic performance or to compensate for cardiac disease.
a. Decreasing heart rate to such an extent that the myocardium is protected from damage caused by the increased workload
b. Increasing the stroke volume
c. Increasing the effciency of the heart muscle
d. Physiologic heart enlargement; the heart is composed of muscle that responds to work by increasing is size and becoming stronger
30. CHF (Congestive heart failure) results when the pumping ability of the heart is impaired to the extent that Na and H2O are retained in an effort to compensate for inadequate cardiac output. It is associated with all of the following except ______.
a. Exercise intolerance
b. Pulmonary edema
d. Diaphragmatic Hernia
31. Digitalis is a _________. It is obtained from the dried leaves of the plant Digitalis purpurea.
a. Catecholamine drug
b. Bipyridine derivative
c. Cardiac Glycoside
d. Antiarrhythmic drug
32. Quinidine is a alkaloid that is obtained from cinchona plants or is prepared form quinine. It is used or is prepared for quinine. It is used to treat ventricular arrhythmias, ventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation. Quinine does must be _____ in patients who are being concurrently with digoxin.
33. Gloves do not have to be worn when applying nitroglycerin
34. Concurrent use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may ______ the effectiveness of captopril.
35. Furosemide may cause ______ in patients