Communism and the Cold War

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Cold War

A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.

Yalta

When FDR, Churchill, and Stalin meet; they agreed to wage war on Japan, to divide Germany into 4 equal parts, on the big 5's veto, and to hold free elections for the liberated countries.

Postdam

Last conference of the Big 3, took place after Germany's defeat and during news of successful a-bomb production, moved Poland 100 miles west at expense of Germany, established a Council of Foreign Ministers.

Berlin Blockade

April 1, 1948 - Russia under Stalin blockaded Berlin completely in the hopes that the West would give the entire city to the Soviets to administer. To bring in food and supplies, the U.S. and Great Britain mounted air lifts which became so intense that, at their height, an airplane was landing in West Berlin every few minutes. West Germany was a republic under France, the U.S. and Great Britain. Berlin was located entirely within Soviet-controlled East Germany.

Berlin Airlift

Joint effort by the US and Britian to fly food and supplies into W Berlin after the Soviet blocked off all ground routes into the city.

Soviet bloc

The Soviet Union and the Eastern European countries that installed Communist regimes after World War II and were dominated by the Soviet Union.

Western bloc

Refers to the powers allied with the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact during the Cold War.

Truman Doctrine

First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.

containment

American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world.

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries.

Warsaw Pact

Treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania.

Iron Curtain

A political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eatern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region.

Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty

Treaty created to reduce spread of nuclear weapons that came about on March 5, 1970. The US, Russia, the UK, France and China are the 5 permanent members on the treat.

IAEA

International Atomic Energy Agency; responsible for monitoring global nuclear activities.

Sun Yat-sen

Chinese physician and political leader who aimed to transform China with patriotic, democratic, and economically progressive reforms.

Chinese Revolution of 1911

Overthrow of the Manchu Dynasty. Began with the Wuchang Uprising and ended with the resignation of Emperor Puyi. Involved the Imperial forces of the Qing Dynasty and the revolutionary forces of the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance.

Three Principles of the People

Liberal principles of nationalism, democracy, and the socialism that was supported by Sun Yat-sen that were very democratic and western in heritage.

Guomindang (KMT)

The Nationalist party of China which pushed for modernization and nationalization, established by Sun Yat-sen.

Chiang Kai-shek

General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong.

Mao Zedong

This man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life.

Republic of China

A government on the island of Taiwan established in 1949 by Chiang Kai-shek after the conquest of mainland China by the communists led by Mao Zedong.

People's Republic of China

Communist government of mainland China; proclaimed in 1949 following military success of Mao Zedong over forces of Chiang Kai-shek and the Guomindang.

Great Leap Forward

Started by Mao Zedong, combined collective farms into People's Communes, failed because there was no incentive to work harder, ended after 2 years.

Cultural Revolution

Campaign in China ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of his opponents and instill revolutionary values in the younger generation.

Deng Xiaoping

Communist Party leader who forced Chinese economic reforms after the death of Mao Zedong.

Tiananmen Square massacre

In 1989, demonstrators peacefully assembled to push for greater democracy in China; when the demonstrators refused to disperse the government sent in troops and tanks.

General MacArthur

He was one of the most-known American military leaders of WW2(He liberated the Phillipines and made the Japanese surrender at Tokyo in 1945, also he drove back North Korean invaders during the Korean War).

Vietminh

An organization of Vietnamese Communists and other nationalist groups that between 1946 and 1954 fought for Vietnamese independence from the French.

Ho Chi Minh

1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable.

Ngo Dihn Diem

Corrupt leader of South Vietnam, supported by US until his unpopularity (Monks burned themselves to voice their hate of him) led US to approve a coup on November 1 of 1963 by rebels supported by the US military, but those leaders proved to be unstable, and perhaps worse then this man. South Vietnam could not find a Ho Chi Minh.

Platt Amendment

Prevented newly independent Cuba from making treaties with other nations and gave the US control over Guantanamo Bay.

Batista Dictatorship

During the 1950s this dictator ruled Cuba with the support of the US government. He was a corrupt and ineffective leader. In general under his rule Cuba was politically restive.

Fidel Castro

Led the revolution of Cuba and took control of Cuba in 1959; resented past dictators; made Cuba communist.

Cuban Revolution

(1958) A political revolution that removed the United States supported Fugencio Batista from power. The revolution was led by Fidel Castro who became the new leader of Cuba as a communist dictator.

President Kennedy

President during, the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the American Civil Rights Movement and early events of the Vietnam War.

Bay of Pigs Invasion

The CIA-directed attack on Cuba by anti-Castro Cuban exiles. The mission was intended to incite rebellion, but was stifled very quickly.

Cuban Missile Crisis

Brink-of-war confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union over the latter's placement of nuclear-armed missiles in Cuba.

"Good Neighbor"

Policy that US won't depend on military force to exercise influence in Latin America.

PRI

Institutional Revolutionary Party which dominated Mexican politics and claimed to represent all groups.

export economies

Economies that exported mainly raw or unfinished products to more developed countries. This sort of economy is susceptible to fluctuations in demand for products. One region would generally specialize into one specific product, and this provided an extremely narrow economic base.

National Action Party (PAN)

The leading conservative political party in Mexico. The 2000 election brought them to power for the first time and ended nearly 60 years a single-party rule in Mexico.

Hugo Chavez

(1954-) Venezuelan political leader and president; he set out to eliminate poverty in his country, but his methods of doing so tended to turn his country away from democracy and toward a dictatorship.

Solidarity

Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression. It began the nationalist opposition to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of communism in eastern Europe.

Lech Walesa

A Polish politician, a former trade union and human rights activist, and also a former electrician. He co-founded Solidarity, the Soviet bloc's first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland from 1990 to 1995.

Tadeusz Mazowiecki

A Solidarity leader, who became Prime Minister, along with General Jaruzelski the Communist President of Poland.

Mikhail Gorbachev

Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe.

glasnost

Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.

perestroika

A policy of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to revitalize the Soviet economy by opening it up to more free enterprise.

"ethnic cleansing"

Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region, seen in Yugoslavia in the 90's as Muslims were killed by Serbians.

Chechnya

A Muslim republic of Russia that has experienced some of the worst violence because they wanted independence.

Federal

A political-territorial system wherein a central government represents the various entities within a nation-state where they have common interests-defense, foreign affairs, and the like-yet allows these various entities to retain their own identities and to have their own laws, policies, and customs in certain spheres.

Boris Yeltsin

President of the Russian Republic in 1991. Helped end the USSR and force Gorbachev to resign.

KGB

Secret police of the Soviet Union.

Vladimir Putin

Elected president of Russia in 2000, launched reforms aimed at boosting growth and budget revenues and keeping Russia on a strong economic track.

Dmitry Medvedev

The current President of Russia.

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