Voting Rights Act
1965 act by Johnson which guaranteed the right to vote to all Americans, and allowed the federal government to intervene in order to ensure that minorities could vote
Anti-discrimination legislation designed to ensure equal opportunity in housing to all home buyers.
(1883): Did away with the "spoils system"/patronage and made the hiring of federal employees merit based. Established the Civil Service Commission (CSC). In response to Garfield's assassination by angry guy who didn't get a gov. job.
Republican in the 1870s who supported Ulysses Grant and Roscoe Conkling; they accepted machine politics and the spoils system and were challenged by other Republicans called Half-Breeds, who supported civil service reform.
The 1955 treaty binding the Soviet Union and countries of eastern Europe in an alliance against the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
1947 President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
1957 policy of the US that it would defend the middle east against attack by any communist country, used especially against Arab states-> said to leave Lebanon alone
civil rights commission
set up by the Civil Rights Act and was made to investigate violations of civil rights and authorized federal injunctions to protect voting rights
economic policy of president Ronald Reagon; known as "trickle down" economics or supply-side economics; based on major tax cuts for the rich from which money would "trickle down" to the poor and stimulate the economy/the job market; initially led to recession but later was beneficial; widened gap between rich and poor
1786 MA farmers were losing farms b/c could not pay debts in hard currency. Wanted: end to farm foreclosures, end to imprisonment for debt, relief from oppressively high taxation, increased circulation of paper money. Showed Articles of Confederation were too weak.
Constitution (Ratified 1788)
Provisions: separation of powers (3 branches), Congress declares war, slavery is legal, Electoral College (no direct popular presidential election), can impeach President, presidential State of the Union message, ratifying Constitution, Federalism, bicameral legislature (Great Compromise), list powers of Congress, 3/5 Compromise (1 slave= 3/5 citizen)
Provisions NOT in Constitution
2-term limit (A 22), universal manhood suffrage (A 15), presidential cabinet, direct election of senators (A 17), freedom of speech + press (A 1), right to speedy public trial (A 6), political parties
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson (Democratic Republican) wins election, ends Federalist Decade. 1st peaceful transfer of power (between political parties)
King Philip's War
1675-1676 Wampanoag chief Metacom aka King Philip unites Indians to attack New England. Virtually ends Native American resistance in NE.
1688 King James II in England united NE colonies into the Dominion of New England. Despised for trying to assert control over the colonies. Overthrown and replaced with William and Mary.
1735 John Peter Zenger brought to court for criticizing NY's royal governor. He was acquitted, encouraging freer speech.
Kentucky + Virginia Resolutions
Jefferson and Madison's response to Alien and Sedition Acts. Promoted states' right to nullify federal laws considered unconstitutional (1799)
Albany Plan of Union
1754 Benjamin Franklin's plan for an intercolonial government: system for recruiting troops + collecting taxes for common defense. Did not happen b/c colonies too divided.
Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania
John Dickinson writes: Parliament can regulate commerce, but NO Taxation Without Representation!
Dartmouth College vs. Woodward
1819 case in which the Marshall court ruled that states could not interfere with private contracts
McCullough vs. Maryland
Court case that said a state could not tax a national bank thus increasing the power of the national government, Necessary and Proper clause (Elastic Clause)
War of 1812
Causes: impressment of seamen, interference with commerce, British aid to Native Americans against colonists. Results: contributed to demise of Federalist Party, nationalism, promoted industrialization. President=Jackson
Henry Clay wanted: internal improvements in transportation to promote trade + unite country, tariffs to protect domestic industries + fund internal improvements. South benefited least because they were agricultural, not industrial.
1794 Britain will trade w/ Americans and the British leave northwest territory. Solve impressment issue.
1795 Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans. Moved Spanish Florida's border south.
William Lloyd Garrison
1830s Founded the American Anti-Slavery Society. He supported women's rights, causing it to split into factions.
American Colonization Society
1820s-1830 Worked to return freed slaves to west Africa. Led mainly by middle class men + women.
Sarah Moore Grimké
One of the 1st women to publicly support abolition and women's rights
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Equal accommodations in public places for blacks + whites. Prohibited racial discrimination in jury selection. Was not enforced.
Civil Rights Cases of 1883
Grouping of several cases which overall ruled most of the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional, weakening blacks' rights.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
1896. Separate but equal
Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka
1954. Separate is inherently unequal.
Atlanta Compromise Speech
1895 Booker T. Washington's speech: blacks should seek economic advancement, not political, so that white respect them.
African Americans who moved from the post-Reconstruction New South to Kansas
Native American sacred ritual with which they hoped to bring back the buffalo and make White civilization vanish. 1890 Led to Battle of Wounded Knee massacre b/c US army feared an uprising.
Frederick Jackson Turner
1893 Frontier Thesis: American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems.
Scientific management developed by Frederick W. Taylor; sought to develop a disciplined factory labor force by eliminating wasted motion.
Knights of Labor
1869-1886 Established by Terence V. Powderly. All unskilled + semi-skilled laborers. Wanted laborers to own the industries, wanted to eliminate conflict between labor and management (no violence). Ended by Haymarket Square riot blame.
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
aka Wobblies. "An injury to one is an injury to all." United ALL laborers, wanted to create "One Big Union." Embraced class conflict idea + endorsed violence. Collapsed during WWI.
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Leader= Samuel Gompers. Skilled workers in craft unions. Wanted higher wages, shorter hours, better working conditions. Did not encourage violence.
Prevalent theme in late 1800s literature.
Interstate Commerce Act
1887 law that made a federal Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate unfair railroad practices
Initiative Referendum Recall
Initiative: people have the right to propose a new law. Referendum: a law passed by the legislature can be reference to the people for approval/veto. Recall: the people can petition and vote to have an elected official removed from office. These all made elected officials more responsible and sensitive to the needs of the people, and part of the movement to make government more efficient and scientific.
Federal Reserve Act
1913 passed by Wilson. Sparked by the Panic of 1893 and 1907, the 1913 Federal Reserve Act created the Federal Reserve System, which issued paper money controlled by government banks.
Anthracite Coal Strike
1902 United Mine Workers of America strike in eastern Pennsylvania which threatened to cause an energy crisis requiring the federal government (TR) to intervene on the side of labor (first time). Made currency and credit more elastic.
Founded Hull House, Chicago, IL. Settlement houses to help the urban poor.
Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
Leader: Carry Nation
Ida B. Wells
African American civil rights + women's rights advocate. Tried to pass anti-lynching law.
Birth of a Nation
1915 1st film. Resurgence of KKK.
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers. Prevalent during Gilded Age
Foreign Policy idea by Taft to make countries (in Asia + Latin America) dependent on the U.S. by heavily investing in their economies. Achieved little success.
Open Door Policy
1899 Statement of U.S. foreign policy toward China. Issued by U.S. secretary of state John Hay, the statement reaffirmed the principle that all countries should have equal access to any Chinese port open to trade.
Telegram sent by Germans to encourage a Mexican attack against the United States. Intercepted by the US in 1917. Promised to return Mexican cession territories in return.
Committee on Public Information
Spread WWI support propaganda. Americans bought war bonds, Germans= barbarians.
International Monetary Fund
a United Nations agency to promote trade by increasing the exchange stability of the major currencies
Senator Henry Cabot Lodge
Opposed Wilson's 14 points. Suggested a literacy test for all immigrants into the country.
1919-1920 Against suspected communists + anarchists. Government agencies disregarded civil liberties such as search + seizure without warrants.
1920s The American plan to loan money to Germany, who would pay their reparations to France and Britain, who would pay back their debt to America, which created a win-win for everyone, and made they people happy and thought that peace was possible.
Sacco and Vanzetti
were two italian born american laborers and anarchists who were tired convicted and executed via electrocution in 1927 in Ma for the 1920 armed robbery. it is believed they had nothing to do with the crime
founder of United Negro Improvement Association ;; promotes resettlement of American blacks to own "African homeland", sponsored stores & businesses to keep $ in blacks' pockets ;; inspiration for Nation of Islam
1930 Raised tariffs, triggered decline in world trade by 40 % in 3 yrs. Contributed to Great Depression.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
1932 by Hoover to make loans to banks, insurance companies, and railroads, it was intended to provide emergency funds to help businesses overcome the effects of the Depression. It was later used to finance wartime projects during WW II.
Civil Conservation Corps (CCC)
gave jobs to young people in thier 20s and 30s. gave people money. RELIEF
National Recovery Administration (NRA)
(1) perhaps the most important element of the 1st New Deal, this agency established a forum in which business & government officials met to set regulations for fair competition; (2) industries obeyed these regulations from 1933 to 1935, when the the agency was declared unconstitutional
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
Restricted production during the New Deal by paying farmers to reduce crop area.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
June 1933. Innovative attempt at regional planning. Series of dams in seven states on the Tennessee river to control floods, ease navigation, and produce electricity. Endures to this day. Relief and Reform
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
Proposed the 27th Amendment, calling for equal rights for both sexes. Defeated in the House in 1972.
1st important African american writer. Abolitionists later point to her as proof that they are intellectually equal
1932, Hoover's Secretary of State said the US would not recognize territorial changes resulting from Japan's invasion of Manchuria