1) What is the most common method of political participation in the United States? 1) A) making political contributions
D) writing letters to government officials
) Voter turnout is typically lowest in which of the following countries? 2) A) Italy
B) the Netherlands C) Germany
D) the United States
3) Which of the following instances best exemplifies the concept of BUYcott? 3)
A) withholding federal income taxes to proest an unpopular war
B) demonstrating outside a local restaurant that hires illegal aliens paid ʺunder the tableʺ
C) voting against parties that support ʺbig businessʺ
D) walking several blocks out of oneʹs way, past several other eateries, to dine at a restaurant
that serves only eggs from free-range hens
E) throwing your smartphone and tablet in the river to protest unfair labor standards in China
Which of the following is the most helpful in understanding why fewer African Americans turnout 4)
A) African Americans lack a strong work ethic. B) African Americans have lower incomes.
C) African Americans are better educated.
D) African Americans share a sense of ʺgroup consciousness.ʺ
E) African Americans are less patriotic.
5) In todayʹs political climate, women are more likely than men to 5) A) run a political campaign.
C) contact political leaders.
D) contribute to a political cause.
E) hold political office.
Which of the following statements is accurate? 6) A) Hispanics vote more than African Americans; African Americans vote more than whites.
B) Whites vote more than African Americans; African Americans vote more than Hispanics.
C) Whites vote more than Hispanics; Hispanics vote more than African Americans. D) Hispanics vote more than whites; whites vote more than African Americans.
E) African Americans vote more than Hispanics; Hispanics vote more than whites.
Which of the following reasons is most frequently given by registered nonvoters for why they did 7) not vote in 2004?
A) I was too busy.
B) I was out of town.
C) I had transportation problems. D) The weather was bad.
E) My polling place was inconvenient.
Psychological predisposition toward or interest in politics defines 8) A) internal political efficacy.
B) exteranal politicla efficacy. C) political information.
D) political engagement.
E) political interest.
Which of the following is a reason for the low U.S. voter registration rate? 9) A) The Motor Voter act has made it more difficult to register.
B) Citizens are responsible for registering themselves; the government does not do it for them. C) Election Day is a national holiday in the United States.
D) The time and effort required to register to vote is relatively low.
E) Most states permit Election Day voter registration.
Which of the following is least likely to be registered to vote? 10) A) an Hispanic
B) an eighteen-year-old C) a woman
D) an African American
E) a man
What is ticket-splitting? 11) A) refusing to register with a political party
B) voting for independents
C) voting for candidates from different parties in an election D) voting in some elections and not in others
E) tearing up your ballot in protest
A primary election in which only a partyʹs registered voters are eligible to participate is called 12) A) a round robin primary.
B) a blanket primary. C) instant runoff voting. D) an open primary.
E) a closed primary.
The process that allows citizens to propose legislation and submit it to the electorate for popular 13) vote is called
A) initiative. B) caucus.
14) Which of the following governors has been recalled? 14) A) Arnold Schwarzenegger
B) Rudy Giuliani C) Roy Romer D) Grey Davis
E) Christine Todd Whitman
18) The office holders who organize themselves and pursue policy objectives under a party label are 18) referred to as the
A) organizational party.
B) governmental party.
C) political party.
D) campaign party.
E) objectives party.
Party politics was nearly suspended during the 19)
A) Populist Era.
B) Roaring Twenties.
D) Era of Good Feelings.
E) Progressive Era.
What does the Constitution say about political parties? 20)
A) ʺAs Democracy is unthinkable save in terms of Parties, the Right of the People to form and
￼￼￼￼￼￼￼keep Parties shall not be abridged.ʺ
B) The Constitution does not mention political parties.
C) ʺCongress shall organize itself by Majority and Minority Party, in accordance with the Results of the most recent Election.ʺ
D) ʺElections shall be Mediated by exactly two Political Parties.ʺ
E) ʺThe number of Political Parties shall not be limited, but no Party shall gain access to any
Ballot or Ticket without the receipt of five per cent of the Vote in the preceding Election.ʺ
1874 to 1912 represents the
A) Responsible Party System.
B) Golden Age of parties.
C) Christian Democratic Party Era. D) Era of Good Feelings.
E) Age of Aquarius.
22) In a direct primary system, who selects party candidates? 22) A) party bosses
B) party leaders
C) party conventions D) qualified voters
E) political machines
The decline in political parties brought about by the Progressive era reforms has led to 23) A) secular realignment.
B) party machines.
D) candidate-centered politics.
E) party realignment.
A shifting of party coalition groupings in the electorate that remains in place for several elections is 24) known as
A) an electoral tsunami. B) party realignment.
C) punctuated misalignment. D) a coalitional government.
E) ticket splitting.
Every four years the parties nominate a presidential candidate through a 25) A) party platform.
B) national nominating committee. C) national convention.
D) conference committee.
E) smoke-filled-room procedure.
Party discipline is enforced through 26) A) committee appointments.
B) competitive elections.
C) loyalty oaths.
D) reducing congressional salaries.
E) soft money donations.
The number of self-declared independents has 27) A) stayed constant since 1990.
B) declined by fifty percent in the last decade.
C) increased to about 10 percent of the population.
D) declined by twenty-five percent in the last decade.
E) increased to about 40 percent of the population.
Members of which of the following groups are most likely to be Democrats? 28) A) the wealthy
B) the working class C) men
E) middle-aged Americans
Which of the following helps explain why middle-aged voters lean towards the Republican Party? 29) A) They are at the height of their careers and their earnings potentials.
B) They can relate to todayʹs youth.
C) They are anticipating retirement and the need for medical care from the government.
D) They are anticipating retirement and the need for income security from the government.
E) They remember how hard it was to struggle to pay for college.
Todayʹs young voters are most likely to be 30) A) Libertarian.
B) Communist. C) Republican. D) Democratic.
A general decline in partisan identification and loyalty is sometimes called 31) A) misanthropy.
B) Reaganʹs Revenge. C) Clintonʹs Collapse. D) dealignment.
E) partisan malaise.
According to disturbance theory, why do interest groups form? 32) A) to promote the well being of civil servants
B) to counteract the effects of other groups C) to bolster the economy
D) to bother government
E) to serve the public good
Party affiliation provides a useful cue for voters when evaluating political events and issues.
While the party in the electorate has declined in recent years, the party in government and the 38) party organizations are stronger than ever.
A labor union is an example of a 39) A) economic interest group.
B) trade association group. C) public interest group. D) governmental unit.
E) political action committee.
Corporations can contribute money to political campaigns by forming 40) A) subsidiaries.
D) 528 groups.
Which of the following is a single-issue group? 41) A) NAACP
C) U.S. Chamber of Commerce D) National Rifle Association
What did the Clayton Act do? 42) A) It required interest groups to share their membership lists with the government.
B) It granted vast swaths of land to the Central Pacific Railroad.
C) It allowed Standard Oil to drill on publicly owned land in Pennsylvania. D) It established open shop laws.
E) It allowed labor unions to form and guaranteed their right to strike.
The percentage of the work force in labor unions was highest in 43) A) 1900 B) 1924 C) 1950 D) 1986 E) 2005
The activities of a group or organization that seeks to influence legislation and persuade political 44) leaders to support a groupʹs positions is called
B) ʺpolitics by other means.ʺ
C) patronage. D) realpolitik.
Interest groups tend to focus most of their efforts on 45) A) lobbying.
B) direct mail solicitations.
C) getting out the vote.
D) rating candidates or officeholders and creating voter guides.
E) endorsing candidates.
Which of the following lobbying techniques are interest groups most likely to engage in? 46) A) running advertisements
B) engaging in protests
C) contacting government officials
D) doing favors for officials who need assistance
E) endorsing candidates
Many of the most effective lobbyists are 47) A) purveyors of false or misleading information.
B) current White House or Cabinet officers.
C) uninformed about the issues for which they lobby. D) socially awkward.
E) former members of Congress.
Lobbyists tend to concentrate their efforts on 48)
A) representatives who share their policy preferences.
B) representatives who do not share their policy preferences and therefore need to be persuaded.
C) the president.
D) the judicial branch.
E) members of the House of Representatives who are not up for reelection for at least four years.
Interest groups lobby the federal courts through 49)
A) contributions to judgesʹ and justicesʹ pensions.
B) direct payments to judges and justices in exchange for favorable decisions.
C) contributions to judgesʹ and justicesʹ reelection committee.
D) sponsoring lawsuits and filing briefs.
E) All of the above.
What is grassroots lobbying? 50)
A) lobbying efforts aimed at those who can influence public officials, such as the major
contributors to their campaigns
B) lobbying efforts aimed at increasing agricultural subsidies
C) lobbying efforts aimed at maintaining the status quo
D) attempting to influence public policies by providing expensive gifts or junkets to members of
E) interest group activity aimed at getting citizens to contact their representatives
Those who join interest groups tend to 51) A) have higher levels of income and education.
B) be deeply involved in the groups activities and meetings. C) be members of a labor union.
D) be blue-collar workers.
E) limit their membership to the one group they care most strongly about.
The free rider problem is 52)
A) a disincentive to join an interest group.
B) the tendency for group members to pay dues but not otherwise participate in other group activities.
C) the tendency for citizens to belong to more than one group.
D) the ability of group members to join aligned groups at discounted rates.
E) an incentive to join an interest group.
Persons who join an interest group because it promises to offer them discounts on certain services 53) are responding to
A) material incentives. B) solidary incentives. C) relegated incentives.
D) fixed incentives.
E) purposive incentives.
ʺIron trianglesʺ refer to the close relationships between Congressional committees, interest groups, 54) and
A) the Supreme Court. B) Kutztown University. C) bureaucratic agencies.
D) political parties. E) the U.S. military.
The railroad industry was one of the most successful early organized interests in the United States.