Civil Rights and Vietnam 1963-1975

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Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

consisted of African American college students, organized sit ins at white lunch counters that spread nationwide, organized Freedom Summer (1964) where Northern college students went South to register black voters frequently faced violence (beaten or killed)

Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)

organized Freedom rides

Southern Christian Leadership Conference

helped organize the March on Washington and the civil rights campaign in Birmingham, Alabama

Martin Luther King, Jr.

began a civil rights campaign in Birmingham, Alabama to pressure municipal governments to end segregation in the city (successful), tactics: sit-ins and marches, nonviolence, boycotts; whites responded with violence (dogs, fire hoses, attacks, attempts to bomb and kill blacks)

March on Washington

MLK lead 200,000 civil rights activists to DC in front of the Lincoln Memorial where he gave his "I Have a Dream" speech

civil Rights Act of 1964

ended legal segregation and discrimination, also created the Equal Employment Opportunity commission which prevented racial and gender discrimination in the workplace

Selma

(1965) civil rights campaign in Selma, Alabama; activists planned to march from Selma to Montgomery to publicize their disenfranchisement but state troopers attacked and prevented them from marching, when they reorganized the demonstration and marched a few days later Lyndon B. Johnson sent the Alabama national Guard to protect them; prompted Johnson to pass the voting Rights Act of 1965

Voting Rights Act of 1965

allowed African Americans to register to vote without fear of violence

Malcolm X

black Muslim who promoted black pride/nationalism (Black Power) and self-defense against white violence, supported by: Northern urban black youth, the Nation of Islam, Northern white student radicals (but he frightened most whites), tactics: militant speeches, challenged King's nonviolence because he opposed gradualism/accommodation, was assassinated in 1965

Black Power

term began by SNCC leader Stokely Carmichael which described expressed many themes advocated by Malcolm X and encouraged blacks to become independent of white society (form all black organizations), express pride in African American culture

Great Society

(1963-1969) Lindon B Johnson's reform, paid special attention to poverty (War on Poverty, only moderately successful), cities, civil rights, healthcare (Medicare-for the elderly and Medicaid- for the disabled and poor), and education (Head Start, preschool in poor neighborhoods)

Economic Opportunity Act

response to Michael Harrington's The Other America which exposed the middle class to the horrible conditions of the poor in America, this act helped the poorest Americans (especially urban blacks), created jobs, improved education housing and medical care

Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965

eliminated national quota system, caused the number of yearly immigrants to skyrocket (especially from East Asia)

Tonkin Gulf

several North Vietnamese Army gunboats allegedly attacked 2 US Navy destroyers causing Congress to pass the Tonkin Gulf resolution (1964) which authorized military action in Southeast Asia

Viet Cong

pro communist guerrillas in South Vietnam

Operation Rolling Thunder

(1968) a bombing campaign in Vietnam meant to prove America's dedication to South Vietnam and reduce the number of Viet Cong attacks but it actually increased them, caused LBJ to believe a slow escalation in the number of US troops in the war would convince the North Vietnamese Army to withdraw (1965, didn't work, the Vietnamese increased their troops to and fought harder which destroyed South Vietnam)

napalm

slow burning chemical agent dropped n the bombs in the Vietnam war that was designed to increase maximum destruction

Agent Orange

chemical weapon that killed forested lands, attempt to draw the Viet Cong out from the forests (the Viet Cong used guerrilla warfare tactics)

Doves vs Hawks

doves- students were among the most vocal anti-war groups during the movement (they held teach-ins, marches, and other forms of civil disobedience)

hawks- supported the war and claimed peace-advocates were un-American

Tet Offensive

(1968) the North Vietnamese launched a major offensive on the South on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), the Americans fought hard and seriously damaged the Vietnamese but since so many Americans died citizens at home felt like they were loosing the war so this increased anti-war sentiment at home and Johnson's popularity declined

assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.

(1968) caused race riots to break out, marked a period of change as racial equality movements become more violent

Robert F. Kennedy

(1968) assassinated while running to become president on a platform of oppressing the Vietnam War and supporting civil rights

presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson

(1963-1969)
Democratic
Great Society, Civil Rights Acts, escalated the Vietnam War

Vietnamizion

(1969) Nixon's policy of slow withdrawal from the Vietnam War while letting the South Vietnamese take over more control of the war

Nixon Doctrine

said America would honor its current defense commitments but wouldn't commit to new ones n the effort to stop communism

Invasion of Cambodia

(1970) Cambodia was a neutral country during the Vietnamese War but the North Vietnamese Army ran weapons through the country to circumvent American bombers and raiding parties so Nixon invaded Cambodia in an attempt to defeat the North Vietnamese, this order shocked and angered the American public

My Lai Massacre

(1971) the military got in trouble when it was discovered that Lieutenant William Calley ordered the rape, torture, and murder of 350+ women and children

Pentagon Papers

(1971) the New york times published a series of leaked documents that accused the army JFK, and LBJ of deceiving the public during the war

Twenty-Sixth Amendment

(1971) lowered the voting age from 21 to 18 because congress felt it was necessary for the young soldiers being sent to war to have the opportunity to vote for the politicians who were sending them there

detente

relaxed tensions with the Soviet Union and China, although they were both communist they were suspicious of each other so Nixon went to China and got the Soviet Union suspicious of a Chinese-American alliance and Nixon used this to manipulate the Russians into a negotiation

Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM)

(1972) limited the missile defense system of the US and Russia (thanks to detente)

Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Treaty

(1972) prevent the US and the Soviet Union from developing any more nuclear weapons for the next 5 years

Christmas Day Bombing

1973-1973) a 2 week bombing campaign of North Vietnam that Nixon hoped would end the war, cased the North Vietnamese to announce a cease-fire and Nixon agreed to withdraw the remaining American troops despite the fact that the North Vietnamese Army still controlled 1/4 of South Vietnam so the North Vietnamese promised to hold an election in Saigon to determine the fate of the country

counterculture

mocked the values of the middle class and embraced a new style that defied traditional standards (hippies with long hair, shabby clothes, and rebellious disregard for the old rules, played rock or folk music, did drugs)

National Organization for Women (NOW)

emerged as the primary group voicing concerns of mainstream feminists; they initiated strikes and protests to demand equality in employment, education, child care, and birth control

Equal rights Amendment (ERA)

would have required women to have been treated equal to men in all domains, didn't pass so the women continued to receive low wages in comparison to men working the same job

Watergate

(1972) 5 men working for CREEP (Committee to Reelect the President) broke into the the national Democratic Party's headquarters in an attempt to fix a bugging device they'd previously installed, the next 2 years the investigation brought light to the worst secrets kept by Nixon's administration, the investigative committee subpoenaed some of the president's audio tapes of White House conversations but Nixon refused to give them so the supreme Court forced him to and the tapes showed that Nixon had tried to cover up the Watergate break ins, Congress wanted to impeach him for this but Nixon resigned before they could

Richard Nixon's Presidency

(1969-1974)
Republican
ended the Vietnam War, opened China, Watergate, 1st president to resign

Gerald Ford's presidency

(1974-1977)
Republican
since Nixon's VP resigned Congress picked Ford to be Nixon's VP making Ford the only president to not be elected by the people, he pardoned Nixon which angered many Americans and ruined his political and public credibility, he also continued to hurt the economy (America faced the deepest recession since the Great Depression)

Woodstock

(1969) music and art fair yay attracted 400,000 people

Roe v. Wade

(1973) gives women the right to abortion

End of the Vietnam War

(1975) after the US left the communists declared victory in Sout Vietnam

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