What mental processes work with memory, resulting in goal directed behavior?
-Information stored only relatively permanent
-Consolidation to more permanent memory over time.
Only lasts for a short period of time (hours to days) and is gone. Example: what did you eat for lunch two days ago?
Things you don't forget. (ABCs, etc.)
Consolidation usually relates to
-Conscious effort by the person (such as rehearsal) -Salience of the stimulus
- importance of stimuli
Long term memory is
the store of our knowledge
working memory provides
a means for using our knowledge.
Working memory includes
search and comparison, numerical calculation, language comprehension, and problem solving.
-center of cognition
-a fast processor of information
"A concentration of mental activity."
Attention can be discussed relative to:
-directed, selective, focused
- shifting (relates to cognitive flexibililty)
Time (sustained attention or vigilance)
The person must maintain their attention to task long enough to facilitate adequate processing.
Processing related to attention
1. Controlled processing
2. Automatic processing
difficult/complex/unfamiliar tasks that require focused attention. Learning to ride bike.
-Used on simple, familiar, or over-learned tasks.
-Require a low level of awareness/ attention.
-May divide attention among multiple tasks.
describes a set of cognitive abilities that control and regulate other abilities and behaviors.
Executive functions are necessary for
Executive functions include the ability to
initiate and stop actions, to monitor and change behavior as needed, and to plan future behavior when faced with novel tasks and situations.
Executive functions are high-level abilities that influence
more basic abilities like attention, memory and motor skills.
Common Cognitive Syndromes
2. Right Hemisphere Syndrome
3. Traumatic Brain Injury
Typical problem of deficit in working memory and in memory consolidation
aphasia cognitive concern
Possible auditory and visual perception problems
aphasia cognitive concern
thinks nothing wrong
The central sulcus divides
"knowledge" regarding deficits.
Anterior patients tend to have
knowledge of their deficits.
Posterior patients often
have anosognosia. They may demonstrate a poor therapeutic set.
Posterior patients tend to have more difficulty with
judgment and reasoning.
Anterior patients tend to have more difficulty with
executive functions of initiating and regulating behaviors.
Right Hemisphere Syndrome
1. Non-linguistic deficits
2. Linguistic deficits
3. Extralinguistic deficits
- Attention> Arousal, sustained, directed, selective > Neglect
- Perception > Topological disorientation > Prosopagnosia > Reduplicative amnesia > Homonymous hemianopsia > Anosognosia > Object recognition
- Executive Functions
May make many linguistic errors but with no noticeable pattern (as does aphasia). May be related to complexity of the task.
- Affect and prosody (comprehension and production)
- Pragmatics > Informativeness > Integration/organization > Producing alternatives
Possible causes are Extralinguistic deficits
1. Impaired inferencing
2. Difficulty assessing plausibility
3. Task complexity
4. Reduced cognitive flexibility
Stages of Dementia
(Very early) (1) early, (2) middle, and (3) late.
Very Early stage dementia symptoms
3.Difficulty with ADLs
4.Difficulty performing mentally challenging tasks
Probably the most sensitive early indicator. May forget an appointment, a birthday, or that the loved one had called to check on them.
the patient may forget the day of the week (disorientation to time rather than person or place).
Difficulty with ADLs
although could be attributed to memory, the patient may burn things while cooking, get distracted from chores, fail to keep the house clean, etc.
Difficulty performing mentally challenging tasks
More problems than usual with checkbook balancing or remembering how to use the VCR.
Early stage dementia symptoms
1. Acquisition of new info
2. Complex attention
3. Episodic memory
4. Topological disorientation.
Acquisition of new info
consolidation into long term memory is difficult
The hallmark of dementia
acquisition of new information
eg., cooking multiple items at once
-early: lost in unfamiliar places - late: lost in familiar places
1. Semantic memory
2. Visual-spatial deficits
(progressive through late stage) - generative naming/word fluency - confrontation naming later middle stage
constructional and other deficits - recognition of faces (late)
1. Semantic memory
2. Memory of routine programs
4. Can be combative
5. Significant wandering
- all paraphasia types - difficulty communicating
Memory of routine programs
- ADLs such as grooming, dressing, swallowing, etc.