Everything that ever happened in American History. EVER.

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Separatist vs. non-Separatist Puritans

Radical Calvinists against the Church of England; Separatists (Pilgrims) argued for a break from the Church of England, led the Mayflower, and established the settlement at Plymouth

Northwest Passage

believed to provide shortcut from Atlantic to Pacific, searched for by Giovanni de Verrazano for Francis I in the race to Asian wealth

Conversion Experience

required of members of the Puritan Church; took the place of baptism required by the Catholic Church

Social Reciprocity

society naturally punishes criminals indiscriminantly

Church of England

Protestant church led by the king of England, independent of Catholic Church; tended toward Catholicism during reign of Catholic royalty

Atlantic slave trade

often debtors sold to slave traders by African kings seeking riches; Columbian Exchange

Jamestown

first permanent English settlement in the Americas (1607), along James River

John Smith

introduced work ethic to Jamestown colony, sanitation, diplomat to local Native American tribes; had fought Spanish and Turks

Pocahontas

key to English-Native American relationship, died in England in 1617

Mayflower Compact

foundation for self-government laid out by the first Massachusetts settlers before arriving on land

John Winthrop

Calvinist, devised concept of "city on a hill" ("A Model of Christian Charity"); founded highly successful towns in Massachusetts Bay

"City on a Hill"

exemplary Christian community, rich to show charity, held to Calvinistic beliefs

Indentured servants

settlers to pay the expenses of a servant's voyage and be granted land for each person they brought over; headright system

Maryland Act of Religious Toleration (1649)

mandated the toleration of all Christian denominations in Maryland, even though Maryland was founded for Catholics (but majority was protestant)

King James I, King Charles

reluctant to give colonists their own government, preferred to appoint royal governors

William Penn and the Quakers

settled in Pennsylvania, believed the "Inner Light" could speak through any person and ran religious services without ministers

Roger Williams

challenged New Englanders to completely separate Church from State, as the State would corrupt the church

Anne Hutchinson

challenged New England Calvinist ministers' authority, as they taught the good works for salvation of Catholicism

The Half-Way Covenant

New Englanders who did not wish to relate their conversion experiences could become half-way saints so that their children would be able to have the opportunity to be saints

Bacon's Rebellion

rebels felt the governor of Virginia failed to protect the frontier from the Native Americans

Navigation Acts

only English and American ships allowed to colonial ports; dissent began in 1763

Mercantilism

ensured trade with mother country, nationalism; too restrictive on colonial economy, not voted on by colonists

Charles II, James II

tried to rule as absolute monarchs without using Parliament, little to no sympathy for colonial legislatures

William and Mary

ended the Dominion of New England, gave power back to colonies

Dominion of New England

combined Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Plymouth (and later Jersey and New York) into one "supercolony" governed by Sir Edmond Andros, a "supergovernor"

The Glorious Revolution

William and Mary kicked James II out of England (exiled into France), allowed more power to the legislatures

James Oglethorpe

established colony of Georgia as a place for honest debtors

The Enlightenment

emphasis on human reason, logic, and science (acquired, not nascent, knowledge); increased followers of Christianity

Benjamin Franklin

connected the colonies to Britain, opposed to unnecessary unfair taxation; strong influence on Albany Plan

The Great Awakening

began by Edwards to return to Puritanism, increased overall religious involvement, gave women more active roles in religion, more and more ministers sprouted up throughout the country; mainly affected towns and cities

Deists

believed that God created the universe to act through natural laws; Franklin, Jefferson, Paine

George Whitefield

powerful speaker, toured the country and inspired many into Christianity

Jonathan Edwards

Puritan minister, led revivals, stressed immediate repentance, wrote "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"

New Lights vs. Old Lights

New Lights brought new ideas, rejected by Old Lights; both sought out institutions independent of each other

Albany Plan of Union

colonies proposed colonial confederation under lighter British rule (crown-appointed president, "Grand Council"); never took effect

French and Indian War

French threat at the borders was no longer present, therefore the colonies didn't need English protection; more independent stand against Britain

Proclamation of 1763

prohibited settlements west of Appalachian, restriction on colonial growth

Salutary Neglect

Parliament took minor actions in the colonies, allowing them to experiment with and become accustomed to self-government, international trade agreements

Writs of Assistance

search warrants on shipping to reduce smuggling; challenged by James Otis

Townshend Act (1767)

similar to Navigation; raised money to pay colonial officials by American taxes; led to Boston boycott of English luxuries

Sugar Act

increased tariff on sugar (and other imports), attempted to harder enforce existing tariffs

Stamp Act

taxes on all legal documents to support British troops, not approved by colonists through their representatives

Stamp Act Congress

held in New York, agreed to not import British goods until Stamp Act was repealed

Virginia Resolves

"no taxation without representation," introduced by Patrick Henry

Currency Act

prohibited colonies from issuing paper money, destabilized colonial economy

Virtual Representation

all English subjects are represented in Parliament, including those not allowed to vote

The Loyal Nine

group of Bostonians in opposition to the Stamp Act, sought to drive stamp distributors from the city

Sons of Liberty

organized and controlled resistance against Parliamentary acts in less violent ways (strength of martyrdom), advocated nonimportation

Declaratory Act

allowed Parliament to completely legislate over the colonies, limited colonists' say

Boston Massacre

British soldiers shot into crowd of snowball fight; two of nine soldiers (defended by John Adams) found guilty of manslaughter

Committees of Correspondence

committees appointed from different colonies to communicate on matters; asserted rights to self¬government, cooperation between colonies

Tea Act (1773)

intended to save British East India Company from bankruptcy, could sell directly to consumers rather than through wholesalers (lowered prices to compete with smuggled tea)

Boston Tea Party

peaceful destruction of British tea in Boston Harbor by colonists disguised as Indians

Quebec Acts

former French subjects in Canada allowed to keep Catholicism, while American colonists expected to participate in the Church of England

Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts)

in reaction to the Boston Tea Party; closing of Boston Harbor, revocation of Massachusetts charter (power to governor), murder in the name of royal authority would be tried in England or another colony

Suffolk Resolves

organize militia, end trade with Britain, refuse to pay taxes to Britain

Olive Branch Petition

politely demanded from the king a cease¬fire in Boston, repeal of Coercive Acts,. guarantee of American rights

Thomas Paine, Common Sense

stressed to the American people British maltreatment and emphasize a need for revolution; appealed to American emotions

George Washington

American commander-in-chief; first president, set precedents for future presidents, put down Whiskey Rebellion (enforced Whiskey Tax), managed first presidential cabinet, carefully used power of executive to avoid monarchial style rule

Whigs (Patriots)

most numerous in New England, fought for independence

Tories (Loyalists)

fought for return to colonial rule, usually conservative (educated and wealthy

British strengths and weaknesses

British citizenship outnumbered colonies', large navy and professional army; exhausted resources (Hessians hired), national debt

Colonial strengths and weaknesses

fair amount of troops, short guerilla tactics, strong leaders (Washington); nonprofessional army that could not handle long battles

Battle of Saratoga

American general Horatio Gates was victorious over British general Burgoyne

Valley Forge

scarce supplies (food and clothing), army motivated by von Steuben

Battle of Yorktown

last major battle; surrender of Cornwallis, led King George III to officially make peace with the colonies

Treaty of Paris (1783)

full American independence, territory west of Appalachian ceded to America, loyalists to be compensated for seized property, fishing rights off of Newfoundland

American society during the Revolution

British-occupied cities, new governments, fighting by any with experience, loaned money, African-Americans and Native Americans involved

Articles of Confederation

states joined for foreign affairs, Congress reigned supreme (lacked executive and judicial), one vote per state, 2/3 vote for bills, unanimous for amendments; too much power to states, unable to regulate commerce or taxes

Virginia Statute on Religious Freedom (1786)

foundation for First Amendment, offered free choice of religion, not influenced by state

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

defined process for territories to become states (population reached 60,000), forbade slavery in the new territories

Alexander Hamilton

pushed for Assumption (federal government to assume state debts), pushed creation of the National Bank (most controversial), loose interpretation of Constitution, leader of Federalist Party

James Madison

strong central government, separation of powers, "extended republic"

Shays's Rebellion

mistreated farmers, fear of monocracy, forced people to think about central government

Connecticut Compromise

advocated by Roger Sherman, proposed two independently-voting senators per state and representation in the House based on population

Virginia Plan

bicameral congressional representation based on population

New Jersey Plan

equal representation in unicameral congress

Commerce Compromise

congress could tax imports but not exports

Federalism

strong central government provided by power divided between state and national governments, checks and balances, amendable constitution

Changes in the Constitution from the Articles

stronger union of states, equal and population-based representation, simple majority vote (with presidential veto), regulation of foreign and interstate commerce, execution by president, power to enact taxes, federal courts, easier amendment process

Elastic Clause ("necessary and proper")

gives Congress the power to pass laws it deems necessary to enforce the Constitution

Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists

Anti-Federalists wanted states' rights, bill of rights, unanimous consent, reference to religion, more power to less-rich and common people; Federalists wanted strong central government, more power to experienced, separation of church and state, stated that national government would protect individual rights

The Federalist Papers

written anonymously by Hamilton, Jay, and Madison; commentary on Constitution, republicanism extended over large territory

Judiciary Act of 1789

established federal district courts that followed local procedures, Supreme Court had final jurisdiction; compromise between nationalists and advocates for states' rights

Bill of Rights

protected rights of individual from the power of the central government

Bank of the United States

Hamilton's plan to solve Revolutionary debt, Assumption highly controversial, pushed his plan through Congress, based on loose interpretation of Constitution

Report on Public Credit

proposed by Hamilton to repair war debts; selling of securities and federal lands, assumption of state debts, set up the first National Bank

Report on Manufactures (tariffs)

Hamilton praised efficient factories with few managers over many workers, promote emigration, employment opportunities, applications of technology

Strict vs. Loose interpretation of the Constitution

loose interpretation allowed for implied powers of Congress (such as the National Bank), strict interpretation implied few powers to Congress

Whiskey Rebellion

Western Pennsylvanian farmers' violent protest against whiskey excise tax, Washington sent large army to put down revolt, protests to be limited to non-violent

Citizen Genet

Edmond Genet contributed to polarization of the new nation by creating his American Foreign Legion in the south, which was directed to attack Spanish garrisons in New Orleans and St. Augustine

Impressment

British Navy would take American sailors and force them to work for Britain

Jay's Treaty

provided for evacuation of English troops from posts in the Great Lakes

Nullification

states could refuse to enforce the federal laws they deemed unconstitutional

Federalists and Republicans

the two political parties that formed following Washington's presidency; Federalists for stronger central government, Republicans for stronger state governments

Washington's Farewell Address

warned against permanent foreign alliances and political parties, called for unity of the country, established precedent of two-term presidency

Neutrality Proclamation of 1793

response to French attempts for alliance with US

XYZ Affair

French foreign minister (Talleyrand) demanded bribe in order to meet with American peace commission, made Adams unpopular among the people

Alien and Sedition Acts

meant to keep government unquestioned by critics, particularly of the Federalists

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

argued that states had the right to determine whether or not the laws passed by Congress were constitutional

12th Amendment

required separate and distinct ballots for presidential and vice presidential candidates

Second Great Awakening

emphasis on personal salvation, emotional response, and individual faith; women and blacks; nationalism (Manifest Destiny)

Election of 1800

Adams, Jefferson, and Burr: Adams lost, Jefferson and Burr tied, Hamilton convinced other Federalists to vote for Jefferson to break the tie

Barbary Pirates

North African Muslim rulers solved budget problems through piracy and tributes in Mediterranean, obtained fees from most European powers

Midnight judges

judges appointed to Supreme Court by Adams in the last days of his presidency to force them upon Jefferson, Marshall among those appointed

Marbury v. Madison

John Marshall declared that the Supreme Court could declare federal laws unconstitutional

Lewis and Clark expedition

Meriwether Lewis and William Clark sent by Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Territory on "Voyage of Discovery"

Non-Intercourse Act

sought to encourage domestic American manufacturing

Macon's Bill No. 2

president has power to cease trade with any foreign country that violated American neutrality

Embargo Act (1807)

prohibited exports (and imports) based in American ports, most controversial Jefferson legislation

War hawks

Clay and Calhoun, eager for war with Britain (War of 1812)

Henry Clay and the American System

Henry Clay aimed to make the US economically independent from Europe (e.g., support internal improvements, tariff protection, and new national bank)

John C. Calhoun

opposed Polk's high-handedness, avid Southern slave-owner (right to own property, slaves as property)

William Henry Harrison

military hero from War of 1812; elected president 1840, died of pneumonia a month later, gave presidency to Tyler

Battle of Tippecanoe

decisive victory in the War of 1812 by Harrison over Tecumseh, used in Harrison's campaign for presidency

Hartford Convention

December 1814, opposed War of 1812, called for one-term presidency, northern states threatened to secede if their views were left unconsidered next to those of southern and western states, supported nullification, end of Federalist Party

Essex case

Federalist cause leading up to Hartford Convention

Era of Good Feelings

Monroe presidency, national unity behind Monroe, post-war boom (foreign demand for cotton, grain, and tobacco), Depression of 1819 (cheap British imports, tightened credit, affected West the most)

James Monroe

provided country with a break from partisan politics, Missouri Compromise, issued Monroe Doctrine

Missouri Compromise (1820)

Maine as free state, Missouri as slave state, slavery prohibited north of 36°30'

Tallmadge Amendment

no further introduction of slaves into Missouri, all children born to slaves to become free at 25

Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817

agreement between US and Britain to remove armed fleets from the Great Lakes

Adams-Onis Treaty

remainder of Florida sold by Spain to US, boundary of Mexico defined

Monroe Doctrine

Europeans should not interfere with affairs in Western Hemisphere, Americans to stay out of foreign affairs; supported Washington's goal for US neutrality in Americas

Panic of 1819

Bank tightened loan policies, depression rose throughout the country, hurt western farmers greatly

Election of 1824

"corrupt bargain" and backroom deal for JQ Adams to win over Jackson

Tariff of Abominations

under JQ Adams, protectionist tariff, South considered it the source of economic problems, made Jackson appear to advocate free trade

Jackson's Presidency

focused on the "Common Man;" removal of Indians, removal of federal deposits in BUS, annexation of territory, liberal use of veto

Transportation Revolution

river traffic, road building, canals (esp. Erie), rise of NYC

Erie Canal

goods able to be transferred from New York to New Orleans by inland waterways

National Road

part of transportation revolution, from Cumberland MD to Wheeling WVa, toll road network; stimulated Western expansion

Indian Removal Act

Jackson was allowed to relocate Indian tribes in the Louisiana Territory

Five Civilized Tribes

Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles; "civilized" due to their intermarriage with whites, forced out of their homelands by expansion

"Trail of Tears"

Cherokee tribe forced to move from southern Appalachians to reservations in current-day Oklahoma, high death toll

Cherokee Nation v. Georgia

first attempt of Cherokees to gain complete sovereign rule over their nation

Worcester v. Georgia

Georgia cannot enforce American laws on Indian tribes

Spoils System

"rotation in office;" Jackson felt that one should spend a single term in office and return to private citizenship, those who held power too long would become corrupt and political appointments made by new officials was essential for democracy

Kitchen Cabinet

Jackson used personal friends as unofficial advisors over his official cabinet

Lowell mill/system

young women employed by Lowell's textile company, housed in dormitories

Cotton Gin

allowed for faster processing of cotton, invented by Eli Whitney, less need for slaves

Nullification Controversy

southern states (especially South Carolina) believed that they had the right to judge federal laws unconstitutional and therefore not enforce them

South Carolina Exposition and Protest

written by Calhoun, regarding tariff nullification

Bank of the United States

destroyed by Jackson on the grounds that it was unconstitutional and too much power for a federal institution

Pet banks

small state banks set up by Jackson to keep federal funds out of the National Bank, used until funds were consolidated into a single treasury

Independent Treasury Bill

government would hold its revenues rather than deposit them in banks, thus keeping the funds away from private corporations; "America's Second Declaration of Independence"

Specie

paper money; specie circular decreed that the government would not accept specie for government land

Maysville Road Veto

vetoed by Jackson on the count that government funds for the Maysville Road would only benefit one state

Liberty Party

supported abolition, broke off of Anti-Slavery Society

Whig Party

believed in expanding federal power on economy, encouraged industrial development; could only gain power on the local level, led by Henry Clay (anti-Jackson)

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