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When Thomas Hoving, former Director of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, first saw a fine scene-painted ancient Greek terra cotta vase, he said "the first thought that came to mind was I was gazing not at a vase, but at a painting." This is indicative of ____.

an art world prejudice that places less importance on functional objects.

In weaving, the lengthwise fibers are called the ____.

warp

In ____ weaving, found in carpeting and in velvet, loops or knots are tied and when the knotting is finished, the ends are cut to create an even surface.

pile

The stylized tree of life and flowers the Tabriz Arbadil carpet, like many Persian rugs, portrays the old Islamic concept of ____.

paradise as a garden

Unlike a typical chandelier, Dale Chihuly's are a different species. They ____.

do not emit light of their own

Contemporary artist Ed Rossbach's wall hanging is made from construction paper and woven in such a way that the image of a ____ emerges from the background.

handgun

The ____ process utilizes a series of dye baths and wax applications to create a design on fabric.

batik

The faces in Faith Ringgold's soft sculpture Mama Jones, Andrew, Barbara, and Faith are reminiscent of ____.

African masks

The gold Russian pectoral piece, produced in the 4th century B.C.E., depicts a mythical creature that is half lion and half eagle, known as a ____, in the lower register.

griffin

Kiff Slemmon's ____ is a miniature sculpture that was constructed for the Artworks for AIDS exhibition and makes reference to the history of mass deaths.

Transport

Late 19th-century posters of Parisian nightlife, such as Jane Avril at the Jardin de Paris, were produced by ____, considered by many to be the father of the color lithograph poster.

Toulouse-Lautrec

Cheryl Ann Thomas's contemporary work Relic130 is best categorized as ____.

coiling

A stylized peacock has long been the ____ for the NBC television network.

logo

The Aeron Chair is a(n) ____ design considered to be the Porsche of office chairs.

ergonomic

From the ancient Greeks to the colonial Americans, the ____ has been found to be a useful basis for urban design.

gridiron

Pierre-Charles L'Enfant's late 18th-century urban design plan for Washington, D.C., was inspired by the art and architecture of ____.

Neo-classical France

Many cities in the Near East and Middle East have a circular tradition in urban design. This tradition likely reflects the belief that they were ____.

the center of the universe

A type of popular, ornamental 19th-century American glass pressed into molds in the shapes of cats, dogs, hens, and ducks is known as ____.

Sandwich glass

Which of the following is not a component of graphic design?

haute couture

No smoking signage is an excellent example of a clear, utilitarian form of typography known as a ____.

pictogram

Native American potter Lucy M. Lewis produces her finely made Acoma Pueblo pots through the laborious process of ____.

coiling

Ceramic glazing dates back to around 3000 B.C.E. and has been found on ____.

tomb tiles of the Egyptian King Menes

Which of the following types of ceramics is fired at the lowest temperature?

earthenware

Glass that has been spun into fine filaments and is used for insulation is known as ____.

fiberglass

The ____ developed the process of glass blowing and thus made ____ commonplace.

Romans; glass containers

Probably the most famous piece of glassware known today is the ____, made by the ____ in the 3rd century C.E.

Portland Vase; Romans

The botanical whimsies of ____ are considered some of the finest examples of Art Nouveau glass.

Tiffany

For the Paleolithic Hall of Bulls cave painting, artists used all of the following techniques except ____.

painting with a bronze knife blade

During the Old Kingdom period of Egyptian art, a new manner of representing the human figure developed that would last thousands of years. It was characterized by all of the following except ____.

naturalistic depiction of the human figure

Much of ancient Egypt's art and many of its monuments were, in one way or another, linked to ____.

death or worship of the dead

In both the Akkadian Victory Stele of Naram Sin and the Egyptian Narmer Palette, the kings are depicted ____.

in combined frontal and profile view and larger than surrounding figures

Large-scale tomb sculptures that were intended to house the spirit of the deceased if mummification failed were known as ____.

ka figures

The Great Pyramids at Giza were built with massive blocks and ____.

surfaced with white limestone

Because the Great Pyramids were plundered so badly by grave robbers, a new type of architecture known as ____ developed during Middle Kingdom in Egypt.

rock-cut tombs

The Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut was carved out of living rock and is most impressive visually due to its three tiers of pillared ____.

colonnades

In New Kingdom Egypt, Amenhotep IV started a revolution in both religion and the arts when he changed his name to Akhenaton to honor the sun god and became a ____. The period of his reign is known as the ____.

monotheist; Amarna period

During Akhenaton's reign, the longstanding stylized formality of Egyptian art briefly gave way to ____, as seen in the very famous Bust of Queen Nefertiti.

naturalism

In 1922, British archaeologist Howard Carter remarked "...a gasp of wonderment escaped our lips, so gorgeous was the sight that met our eye: a golden effigy of the young boy king..." Carter was referring to ____.

King Tut's solid gold coffin

One of the earliest and most famous "fertility" figurines from the Paleolithic period is the ____.

Venus of Willendorf

Which of the following is considered one of the Bronze Age civilizations of pre-Hellenic Greece?

the Cyclades

Linear A, a form of writing based on ____, was developed during the Middle Minoan period on the island of ____.

pictographs; Crete

The term labyrinthine well describes the huge, sprawling Palace at Knossos and the term comes from the myth of the ____.

minotaur

The art and architecture of the Mycenaean civilization reflects a preoccupation with ____ because, unlike Crete, it lacked the natural defense of a surrounding sea.

arms and fortification

In an architectural feat not duplicated until Roman times, the Mycenaeans constructed the Treasury of Atreus, a huge beehive-shaped tomb known as a ____.

tholos

When Heinrich Schliemann excavated Grave Circle A in Mycenae in the late 19th century, he discovered a treasure of ____.

gold

It was during the Neolithic period that ____ monuments were erected and the most famous example is ____.

megalithic; Stonehenge

From the Latin word meaning wedge, ____ was a system of writing developed by the Sumerians.

Cuneiform

In the Victory Stele of Naram Sin, the king and his men are represented in a conceptual manner, probably meant to indicate ____.

respect and victory

The ____ was a multilevel temple designed by the religion-oriented Sumerians but built by the later Babylonians and Assyrians.

ziggurat

The Dying Lioness from Nineveh is an example of ____, the most common art form in Assyria.

carved stone reliefs depicting war and hunting scenes

The Stele of Hammurabi depicts the Babylonian ruler Hammurabi gaining inspiration for his codified laws from the god(dess)____.

Shamash

As seen in the Processional Frieze from the royal audience hall in Persepolis, Persian art is characterized by a combination of stylized floral motifs and ____.

fleshy, well rounded human figures more deeply carved than Assyrian relief sculpture

The ancient Greeks considered themselves to be the center of the universe or "the measure of all things," a concept known as ____.

humanism

Myron's Discobolos or Discus Thrower is representative of the most significant development in Early Classical art: the introduction of ____.

implied movement in sculpture

In an effort to produce an integrated look to the Parthenon, all of the following construction variations are found except that the ____.

top step of the platform is perfectly straight

The contrast of textures and fluidity and spontaneity of movement found in the Parthenon's pediment grouping called The Three Goddesses is typical of the ____ style.

Phidian

Praxiteles' Hermes and Dionysos, from the Late Classical period, depicts a graceful and naturalistic body stance, called the ____, and an increased emphasis on ____.

S-curve; emotional expression

Much of the art of the Hellenistic period, like The Dying Gaul, illustrates that period's preoccupation with ____.

high drama, unleashed passion, and theatrical excess

The stylized faces of the man and wife represented on the Etruscan Sarcophagus from Cerveteri were most likely influenced by ____ sculpture.

Archaic

Although much Roman art is stylistically derived from Greece, portrait sculptures like Head of a Roman are notable for their incredible ____, made possible by ____.

realism; wax death masks

Which of the follow elements of the Temple of Fortuna Virilus is not a Roman innovation?

The use of the Ionic order and post-and-lintel construction.

The fresco painting Ulysses in the Land of the Lestrygonians is an example of the ____ style of Roman wall painting. The Lestrygonians were ____.

Architectural; giant cannibals

The two most significant innovations in building design introduced by the Romans were the ____, which made construction of the Pantheon possible.

arch and concrete

The circles, squares, patterning, and rigid wedge-shaped torsos depicted on the Dipylon Vase indicate that it is a fine example of the ____ period of Greek art.

Geometric

The Colosseum in Rome consists of two back-to-back ____ and a combination of ____ columns that produce a sense of lightness proceeding from bottom to top tier.

amphitheaters; Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian

The Pantheon's dome is ____ to lessen the weight of it both physically and visually.

coffered

Empire period Roman sculpture, as represented in Augustus of Primaporta, was often an interesting juxtaposition of ____ heads with idealized bodies.

individualized

The Roman equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius still exists only because it was mistakenly believed to be a portrait of ____, the first emperor to recognize Christianity.

Constantine

The emperor Maxentius ordered construction of a large basilica near the Roman forum. Little of it remains today, but its design set the precedent for many subsequent ____.

The emperor Maxentius ordered construction of a large basilica near the Roman forum. Little of it remains today, but its design set the precedent for many subsequent ____.

In the late years of the Roman Empire, the realism and idealism that had characterized Roman figural sculpture was replaced by a ____.

spiritual, otherworldly style

Although no female artists are recorded in Greek art, the vase called Women Working Wool on a Loom is evidence that ____ was an important art form for women.

weaving

The François Vase, with black figures on a reddish background, is an example of the ____ painting technique and was produced during the ____ period of Greek art.

black-figure; Archaic

During the ____ period of Greek art, an architectural format was developed that served as a model for all later Greek temples. The central room of the temple was known as a ____.

Archaic; cella

The Doric frieze was divided vertically into compartments. The triglyphs contained vertical grooves and the ____were filled with sculpted figures.

metopes

The Fallen Warrior from the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina was posed in such a way that the body's form corresponded to the sharp angles of the ____ on which it was placed.

pediment

Some of the earliest freestanding sculptures of the Archaic period were kouros figures, or blocky statues of nude young men, all with a conventionalized facial expression called the ____.

Archaic smile

During the Classical period, ____ became the center of Greek art and culture under the dynamic statesman ____.

Athens; Pericles

The first centuries after the death of Jesus, before Emperor Constantine proclaimed religious tolerance for Christians, were known as the ____.

Period of Persecution

Adam and Eve Reproached by the Lord, from the bronze doors of the Ottonian St. Michael's, is notable because it ____.

represents the first sculpture cast in one piece since the fall of Rome

The most significant architectural aspect of St. Michael's at Hildesheim is its use of the ____ to define the spaces within the rest of the church, thereby paving the way for Romanesque and Gothic architecture.

crossing square

In St. Sernin, the ceiling structure is a stone barrel vault, which was necessary for ____.

fireproofing

The interior of St. Étienne has a sense of lightness because the development of the ____ made it possible to pierce the walls above the tribune gallery with a series of windows called a ____.

rib vault; clerestory

The exterior of the Romanesque St. Étienne served as a model for Gothic architecture because its ____ appeared repeatedly in Gothic churches.

two-tower tripartite façade

The iconography of the stylized, doll-like figures on the Weighing of Souls tympanum from the Cathedral of Autun was intended to convey ____.

fear and repentance

In The Annunciation to the Shepherds manuscript illumination from the Lectionary of Henry II, the humans are smaller than and below the angel, and the animals are smaller and lower than the humans. This technique is known as ____.

hierarchical scaling

Perhaps the most famous surviving tapestry is the 230-foot long Romanesque period Bayeux Tapestry, which describes ____ in a continuous narrative.

the invasion of England by William the Conqueror

Academics generally agree that the Gothic style of architecture began in 1140 with the construction of the choir of ____.

St. Denis

As the Gothic period progressed, all of the following architectural innovations occurred except ____.

exterior walls appeared heavier

The ____ were a huge network of galleries and burial chambers beneath the city of Rome where Christians worshiped in secret and buried their dead.

catacombs

Although the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris was begun in the Early Gothic period, later modifications led to High Gothic style developments such as the ____.

elimination of the triforium and use of flying buttresses

The plan of the English Gothic Salisbury Cathedral differs from French Gothic architecture in that it has ____.

a double transept and a square apse

The cathedral of Florence features all of the characteristics below except ____.

twin bell towers

Unlike Romanesque sculpture, Gothic sculptural figures ____.

have drapery folds that are soft and reveal anatomy

The jamb figures of Mary and Elizabeth on the west portal of Reims Cathedral are placed in a naturalistic weight-shift stance also known as ____.

contrapposto

In the Gothic period, ____ assumed a new role of importance in art and architecture.

the Virgin Mary

As evidenced in the realistic poses and proportions of The Good Shepherd in the Catacomb of Saints Pietro and Marcellino, Early Christians shared the art and culture but not the religion of ____.

Rome

____ was one of the first and most important churches erected during the Early Christian period. With its long nave and apse at one end, it was a ____ plan church.

Old St. Peter's; Latin Cross

The San Vitale apse mosaic Justinian and Attendants is characterized by all of the following except ____.

that Justinian is by far the largest figure

The massive dome of Hagia Sophia appears to be light and graceful due to ____.

light filtering through arched windows at its base

In St. Mark's Cathedral in Venice, the arms of its cross plan are equal in length and the interior focus is a central dome. This is known as a ____.

Greek Cross plan

Works such as the gold Scythian plaque from Siberia were primarily made by ____, and the designs reflect their fascination with ____

barbarian tribes; fantastic human-animal forms

For Charlemagne's Palatine Chapel at Aachen, he combined a(n) ____.

Byzantine central plan with Roman classical elements

The word ____ is derived from the French and means rebirth.

Renaissance

Piero della Francesca's Resurrection fresco was based on ____.

mathematical and geometric order

As evidenced in The Birth of Venus, the Medici family protégé Sandro Botticelli loved, above all else, to paint ____.

mythological themes

Some of the purest examples of Renaissance Classicism are to be found in the ____ of Leon Battista Alberti.

architecture

Considered a true Renaissance man, ____ excelled in engineering, the natural sciences, anatomy, music, and technological prototypes, not to mention creating some of the world's best loved paintings.

Leonardo da Vinci

The young artist Raphael painted numerous canvases of the Madonna and Child, but some of his most impressive compositions, like The School of Athens, were executed for ____.

the papal apartments in the Vatican

Using the laws of perspective in his Holy Trinity fresco, Masaccio created the illusion of an extension of the architectural space of the church by painting a(n) ____.

barrel vaulted chapel with holy and common figures

In his Creation of Adam scene from the Sistine Chapel ceiling, Michelangelo created the most ____ in the history of art as God reached out to spark life into Adam.

dramatic negative space

When Michelangelo was only 27, he carved the 13-foot statue of David from ____.

a single piece of almost unworkable marble

The forms and composition of Titian's Venus of Urbino were evolved primarily from ____.

interactions of colors and contrasts of textures

As seen in Tintoretto's The Last Supper, his ____ anticipate(s) the Baroque style.

loose brushwork and dramatic white spotlighting

During the Renaissance period, there was a revival of all of the following except ____.

spirituality and otherworldliness

In The Burial of Count Orgaz, the ____ painter El Greco's heavenly figures appear ____.

Spanish; extremely attenuated

Netherlandish painter Pieter Bruegel the Elder's The Peasant Wedding is an excellent example of ____.

a genre painting

Jacopo Pontormo's Mannerist Entombment depicts all of the following except ____.

faces that are calm and display no emotion

Northern Renaissance artists "married" religion with scenes and objects from everyday life by using ____.

symbolism

The German Renaissance artist Matthias Grünewald's Isenheim Altarpiece is unusual and powerful for its ____.

tormented and dramatic depiction of the Crucifixion

Because Cimabue and Giotto's paintings combine Late Gothic and Early Renaissance styles, they are classified as ____.

Proto-Renaissance

The realism, symbolism, and complicated imagery found in Northern Renaissance paintings originated in and was influenced by ____.

manuscript illumination

The May calendar page of Les Trés Riches Heures was a page from a ____, rendered in an ornate, courtly style known as ____.

Book of Hours; the International Gothic style

As was typical in Northern Renaissance paintings, the setting of Robert Campin's Merode Altarpiece is ____.

a contemporary Flemish home

In Jan van Eyck's strikingly detailed double portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride, which of the following is not a symbolic reference in the painting?

The vase of lilies

In his Adam and Eve engraving, the Northern Renaissance master Albrecht Dürer emphasizes the ____.

classically inspired beauty of the human body

The Renaissance began in 1401 with a competition for the commission to sculpt bronze doors for the baptistery of Florence. The subject of the entry panels was ____.

The Sacrifice of Isaac

For his bronze statue of David, the first life-size nude since classical times, Donatello chose ____ as a prototype.

an underdeveloped adolescent boy

The Baroque era was born in ____, at least in part as a reaction to the spread of Protestantism resulting from the ____.

Rome; Reformation

Spain was one of the wealthiest European countries during the Baroque and lavishly supported the arts, at least partly due to ____.

an influx of riches from the New World

Which of the following statements concerning Diego Velázquez's painting techniques is false?

He favored idealized, classical figures.

For his mysterious Las Meninas, or the ____, Diego Velázquez dissolved his forms into small, roughly textured brushstrokes that would be the hallmark of ____ two centuries later.

maids in waiting; Impressionism

After Martin Luther's Reformation, Dutch artists painted scenes of daily life, whereas Flemish artists ____.

continued painting religious and mythological scenes as in Baroque Italy

Which of the following Baroque painters was an ambassador, diplomat, and court painter to dukes and kings and supervised a huge workshop of assistants?

Peter Paul Rubens

Peter Paul Ruben's The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus depicts a scene from Greek mythology in which two mortal women are seized by ____, the twin sons of Zeus.

Castor and Pollux

During the Baroque period, Protestant Dutch artists sold most of the works they produced to ____.

the middle class

All of Rembrandt's paintings, drawings, and prints seem to focus on ____.

introspection and psychological situations

In his Syndics of the Draper's Guild, Rembrandt captures the men just as ____.

someone outside the canvas enters the room

Which of the following does not describe Jan Vermeer's Young Woman with a Water Jug?

The colors are harsh and garish

Which of the following was not a Baroque addition to St. Peter's?

The Sistine Chapel

Before the Baroque period ended, ____ began to replace Rome as the center of the art world and ____ was the principal exponent of its official style.

France; Nicolas Poussin

Nicolas Poussin's Rape of the Sabine Women utilizes a(n) ____, thereby borrowing a Renaissance technique for structuring a balanced composition.

compositional triangle

King Louis XIV's Palace at Versailles was originally the site of his ____.

hunting lodge

In the Palace at Versailles, all of the following elements echo Renaissance techniques except that the ____.

palace interior is lavishly decorated with dramatic vistas

In Jean-Honoré Fragonard's Happy Accidents of the Swing, all of the following are characteristics of the Rococo and depicted in the painting except ____.

classically inspired facial features

Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun painted the portrait of Marie Antoinette and Her Children in an attempt to portray the queen as ____.

a loving devoted mother

In the Baroque period, England's most significant contribution to the arts was in the realm of ____.

architecture

During World War II, Winston Churchill took extraordinary measures to protect ____ from the Nazi Blitz.

St. Paul's Cathedral

Which of the following historical personalities is not associated with the Enlightenment?

King Louis XVI

For his Grand Manner portraiture, Thomas Gainsborough employed all of the following pictorial devices except ____.

dramatic, looming clouds

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