When Thomas Hoving, former Director of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, first saw a fine scene-painted ancient Greek terra cotta vase, he said "the first thought that came to mind was I was gazing not at a vase, but at a painting." This is indicative of ____.
an art world prejudice that places less importance on functional objects.
In ____ weaving, found in carpeting and in velvet, loops or knots are tied and when the knotting is finished, the ends are cut to create an even surface.
The stylized tree of life and flowers the Tabriz Arbadil carpet, like many Persian rugs, portrays the old Islamic concept of ____.
paradise as a garden
Unlike a typical chandelier, Dale Chihuly's are a different species. They ____.
do not emit light of their own
Contemporary artist Ed Rossbach's wall hanging is made from construction paper and woven in such a way that the image of a ____ emerges from the background.
The ____ process utilizes a series of dye baths and wax applications to create a design on fabric.
The faces in Faith Ringgold's soft sculpture Mama Jones, Andrew, Barbara, and Faith are reminiscent of ____.
The gold Russian pectoral piece, produced in the 4th century B.C.E., depicts a mythical creature that is half lion and half eagle, known as a ____, in the lower register.
Kiff Slemmon's ____ is a miniature sculpture that was constructed for the Artworks for AIDS exhibition and makes reference to the history of mass deaths.
Late 19th-century posters of Parisian nightlife, such as Jane Avril at the Jardin de Paris, were produced by ____, considered by many to be the father of the color lithograph poster.
From the ancient Greeks to the colonial Americans, the ____ has been found to be a useful basis for urban design.
Pierre-Charles L'Enfant's late 18th-century urban design plan for Washington, D.C., was inspired by the art and architecture of ____.
Many cities in the Near East and Middle East have a circular tradition in urban design. This tradition likely reflects the belief that they were ____.
the center of the universe
A type of popular, ornamental 19th-century American glass pressed into molds in the shapes of cats, dogs, hens, and ducks is known as ____.
No smoking signage is an excellent example of a clear, utilitarian form of typography known as a ____.
Native American potter Lucy M. Lewis produces her finely made Acoma Pueblo pots through the laborious process of ____.
Ceramic glazing dates back to around 3000 B.C.E. and has been found on ____.
tomb tiles of the Egyptian King Menes
Glass that has been spun into fine filaments and is used for insulation is known as ____.
The ____ developed the process of glass blowing and thus made ____ commonplace.
Romans; glass containers
Probably the most famous piece of glassware known today is the ____, made by the ____ in the 3rd century C.E.
Portland Vase; Romans
The botanical whimsies of ____ are considered some of the finest examples of Art Nouveau glass.
For the Paleolithic Hall of Bulls cave painting, artists used all of the following techniques except ____.
painting with a bronze knife blade
During the Old Kingdom period of Egyptian art, a new manner of representing the human figure developed that would last thousands of years. It was characterized by all of the following except ____.
naturalistic depiction of the human figure
Much of ancient Egypt's art and many of its monuments were, in one way or another, linked to ____.
death or worship of the dead
In both the Akkadian Victory Stele of Naram Sin and the Egyptian Narmer Palette, the kings are depicted ____.
in combined frontal and profile view and larger than surrounding figures
Large-scale tomb sculptures that were intended to house the spirit of the deceased if mummification failed were known as ____.
Because the Great Pyramids were plundered so badly by grave robbers, a new type of architecture known as ____ developed during Middle Kingdom in Egypt.
The Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut was carved out of living rock and is most impressive visually due to its three tiers of pillared ____.
In New Kingdom Egypt, Amenhotep IV started a revolution in both religion and the arts when he changed his name to Akhenaton to honor the sun god and became a ____. The period of his reign is known as the ____.
monotheist; Amarna period
During Akhenaton's reign, the longstanding stylized formality of Egyptian art briefly gave way to ____, as seen in the very famous Bust of Queen Nefertiti.
In 1922, British archaeologist Howard Carter remarked "...a gasp of wonderment escaped our lips, so gorgeous was the sight that met our eye: a golden effigy of the young boy king..." Carter was referring to ____.
King Tut's solid gold coffin
One of the earliest and most famous "fertility" figurines from the Paleolithic period is the ____.
Venus of Willendorf
Which of the following is considered one of the Bronze Age civilizations of pre-Hellenic Greece?
Linear A, a form of writing based on ____, was developed during the Middle Minoan period on the island of ____.
The term labyrinthine well describes the huge, sprawling Palace at Knossos and the term comes from the myth of the ____.
The art and architecture of the Mycenaean civilization reflects a preoccupation with ____ because, unlike Crete, it lacked the natural defense of a surrounding sea.
arms and fortification
In an architectural feat not duplicated until Roman times, the Mycenaeans constructed the Treasury of Atreus, a huge beehive-shaped tomb known as a ____.
When Heinrich Schliemann excavated Grave Circle A in Mycenae in the late 19th century, he discovered a treasure of ____.
It was during the Neolithic period that ____ monuments were erected and the most famous example is ____.
From the Latin word meaning wedge, ____ was a system of writing developed by the Sumerians.
In the Victory Stele of Naram Sin, the king and his men are represented in a conceptual manner, probably meant to indicate ____.
respect and victory
The ____ was a multilevel temple designed by the religion-oriented Sumerians but built by the later Babylonians and Assyrians.
The Dying Lioness from Nineveh is an example of ____, the most common art form in Assyria.
carved stone reliefs depicting war and hunting scenes
The Stele of Hammurabi depicts the Babylonian ruler Hammurabi gaining inspiration for his codified laws from the god(dess)____.
As seen in the Processional Frieze from the royal audience hall in Persepolis, Persian art is characterized by a combination of stylized floral motifs and ____.
fleshy, well rounded human figures more deeply carved than Assyrian relief sculpture
The ancient Greeks considered themselves to be the center of the universe or "the measure of all things," a concept known as ____.
Myron's Discobolos or Discus Thrower is representative of the most significant development in Early Classical art: the introduction of ____.
implied movement in sculpture
In an effort to produce an integrated look to the Parthenon, all of the following construction variations are found except that the ____.
top step of the platform is perfectly straight
The contrast of textures and fluidity and spontaneity of movement found in the Parthenon's pediment grouping called The Three Goddesses is typical of the ____ style.
Praxiteles' Hermes and Dionysos, from the Late Classical period, depicts a graceful and naturalistic body stance, called the ____, and an increased emphasis on ____.
S-curve; emotional expression
Much of the art of the Hellenistic period, like The Dying Gaul, illustrates that period's preoccupation with ____.
high drama, unleashed passion, and theatrical excess
The stylized faces of the man and wife represented on the Etruscan Sarcophagus from Cerveteri were most likely influenced by ____ sculpture.
Although much Roman art is stylistically derived from Greece, portrait sculptures like Head of a Roman are notable for their incredible ____, made possible by ____.
realism; wax death masks
Which of the follow elements of the Temple of Fortuna Virilus is not a Roman innovation?
The use of the Ionic order and post-and-lintel construction.
The fresco painting Ulysses in the Land of the Lestrygonians is an example of the ____ style of Roman wall painting. The Lestrygonians were ____.
Architectural; giant cannibals
The two most significant innovations in building design introduced by the Romans were the ____, which made construction of the Pantheon possible.
arch and concrete
The circles, squares, patterning, and rigid wedge-shaped torsos depicted on the Dipylon Vase indicate that it is a fine example of the ____ period of Greek art.
The Colosseum in Rome consists of two back-to-back ____ and a combination of ____ columns that produce a sense of lightness proceeding from bottom to top tier.
amphitheaters; Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian
Empire period Roman sculpture, as represented in Augustus of Primaporta, was often an interesting juxtaposition of ____ heads with idealized bodies.
The Roman equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius still exists only because it was mistakenly believed to be a portrait of ____, the first emperor to recognize Christianity.
The emperor Maxentius ordered construction of a large basilica near the Roman forum. Little of it remains today, but its design set the precedent for many subsequent ____.
The emperor Maxentius ordered construction of a large basilica near the Roman forum. Little of it remains today, but its design set the precedent for many subsequent ____.
In the late years of the Roman Empire, the realism and idealism that had characterized Roman figural sculpture was replaced by a ____.
spiritual, otherworldly style
Although no female artists are recorded in Greek art, the vase called Women Working Wool on a Loom is evidence that ____ was an important art form for women.
The François Vase, with black figures on a reddish background, is an example of the ____ painting technique and was produced during the ____ period of Greek art.
During the ____ period of Greek art, an architectural format was developed that served as a model for all later Greek temples. The central room of the temple was known as a ____.
The Doric frieze was divided vertically into compartments. The triglyphs contained vertical grooves and the ____were filled with sculpted figures.
The Fallen Warrior from the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina was posed in such a way that the body's form corresponded to the sharp angles of the ____ on which it was placed.
Some of the earliest freestanding sculptures of the Archaic period were kouros figures, or blocky statues of nude young men, all with a conventionalized facial expression called the ____.
During the Classical period, ____ became the center of Greek art and culture under the dynamic statesman ____.
The first centuries after the death of Jesus, before Emperor Constantine proclaimed religious tolerance for Christians, were known as the ____.
Period of Persecution
Adam and Eve Reproached by the Lord, from the bronze doors of the Ottonian St. Michael's, is notable because it ____.
represents the first sculpture cast in one piece since the fall of Rome
The most significant architectural aspect of St. Michael's at Hildesheim is its use of the ____ to define the spaces within the rest of the church, thereby paving the way for Romanesque and Gothic architecture.
In St. Sernin, the ceiling structure is a stone barrel vault, which was necessary for ____.
The interior of St. Étienne has a sense of lightness because the development of the ____ made it possible to pierce the walls above the tribune gallery with a series of windows called a ____.
rib vault; clerestory
The exterior of the Romanesque St. Étienne served as a model for Gothic architecture because its ____ appeared repeatedly in Gothic churches.
two-tower tripartite façade
The iconography of the stylized, doll-like figures on the Weighing of Souls tympanum from the Cathedral of Autun was intended to convey ____.
fear and repentance
In The Annunciation to the Shepherds manuscript illumination from the Lectionary of Henry II, the humans are smaller than and below the angel, and the animals are smaller and lower than the humans. This technique is known as ____.
Perhaps the most famous surviving tapestry is the 230-foot long Romanesque period Bayeux Tapestry, which describes ____ in a continuous narrative.
the invasion of England by William the Conqueror
Academics generally agree that the Gothic style of architecture began in 1140 with the construction of the choir of ____.
As the Gothic period progressed, all of the following architectural innovations occurred except ____.
exterior walls appeared heavier
The ____ were a huge network of galleries and burial chambers beneath the city of Rome where Christians worshiped in secret and buried their dead.
Although the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris was begun in the Early Gothic period, later modifications led to High Gothic style developments such as the ____.
elimination of the triforium and use of flying buttresses
The plan of the English Gothic Salisbury Cathedral differs from French Gothic architecture in that it has ____.
a double transept and a square apse
Unlike Romanesque sculpture, Gothic sculptural figures ____.
have drapery folds that are soft and reveal anatomy
The jamb figures of Mary and Elizabeth on the west portal of Reims Cathedral are placed in a naturalistic weight-shift stance also known as ____.
In the Gothic period, ____ assumed a new role of importance in art and architecture.
the Virgin Mary
As evidenced in the realistic poses and proportions of The Good Shepherd in the Catacomb of Saints Pietro and Marcellino, Early Christians shared the art and culture but not the religion of ____.
____ was one of the first and most important churches erected during the Early Christian period. With its long nave and apse at one end, it was a ____ plan church.
Old St. Peter's; Latin Cross
The San Vitale apse mosaic Justinian and Attendants is characterized by all of the following except ____.
that Justinian is by far the largest figure
The massive dome of Hagia Sophia appears to be light and graceful due to ____.
light filtering through arched windows at its base
In St. Mark's Cathedral in Venice, the arms of its cross plan are equal in length and the interior focus is a central dome. This is known as a ____.
Greek Cross plan
Works such as the gold Scythian plaque from Siberia were primarily made by ____, and the designs reflect their fascination with ____
barbarian tribes; fantastic human-animal forms
For Charlemagne's Palatine Chapel at Aachen, he combined a(n) ____.
Byzantine central plan with Roman classical elements
As evidenced in The Birth of Venus, the Medici family protégé Sandro Botticelli loved, above all else, to paint ____.
Some of the purest examples of Renaissance Classicism are to be found in the ____ of Leon Battista Alberti.
Considered a true Renaissance man, ____ excelled in engineering, the natural sciences, anatomy, music, and technological prototypes, not to mention creating some of the world's best loved paintings.
Leonardo da Vinci
The young artist Raphael painted numerous canvases of the Madonna and Child, but some of his most impressive compositions, like The School of Athens, were executed for ____.
the papal apartments in the Vatican
Using the laws of perspective in his Holy Trinity fresco, Masaccio created the illusion of an extension of the architectural space of the church by painting a(n) ____.
barrel vaulted chapel with holy and common figures
In his Creation of Adam scene from the Sistine Chapel ceiling, Michelangelo created the most ____ in the history of art as God reached out to spark life into Adam.
dramatic negative space
When Michelangelo was only 27, he carved the 13-foot statue of David from ____.
a single piece of almost unworkable marble
The forms and composition of Titian's Venus of Urbino were evolved primarily from ____.
interactions of colors and contrasts of textures
As seen in Tintoretto's The Last Supper, his ____ anticipate(s) the Baroque style.
loose brushwork and dramatic white spotlighting
During the Renaissance period, there was a revival of all of the following except ____.
spirituality and otherworldliness
In The Burial of Count Orgaz, the ____ painter El Greco's heavenly figures appear ____.
Spanish; extremely attenuated
Netherlandish painter Pieter Bruegel the Elder's The Peasant Wedding is an excellent example of ____.
a genre painting
Jacopo Pontormo's Mannerist Entombment depicts all of the following except ____.
faces that are calm and display no emotion
Northern Renaissance artists "married" religion with scenes and objects from everyday life by using ____.
The German Renaissance artist Matthias Grünewald's Isenheim Altarpiece is unusual and powerful for its ____.
tormented and dramatic depiction of the Crucifixion
Because Cimabue and Giotto's paintings combine Late Gothic and Early Renaissance styles, they are classified as ____.
The realism, symbolism, and complicated imagery found in Northern Renaissance paintings originated in and was influenced by ____.
The May calendar page of Les Trés Riches Heures was a page from a ____, rendered in an ornate, courtly style known as ____.
Book of Hours; the International Gothic style
As was typical in Northern Renaissance paintings, the setting of Robert Campin's Merode Altarpiece is ____.
a contemporary Flemish home
In Jan van Eyck's strikingly detailed double portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride, which of the following is not a symbolic reference in the painting?
The vase of lilies
In his Adam and Eve engraving, the Northern Renaissance master Albrecht Dürer emphasizes the ____.
classically inspired beauty of the human body
The Renaissance began in 1401 with a competition for the commission to sculpt bronze doors for the baptistery of Florence. The subject of the entry panels was ____.
The Sacrifice of Isaac
For his bronze statue of David, the first life-size nude since classical times, Donatello chose ____ as a prototype.
an underdeveloped adolescent boy
The Baroque era was born in ____, at least in part as a reaction to the spread of Protestantism resulting from the ____.
Spain was one of the wealthiest European countries during the Baroque and lavishly supported the arts, at least partly due to ____.
an influx of riches from the New World
Which of the following statements concerning Diego Velázquez's painting techniques is false?
He favored idealized, classical figures.
For his mysterious Las Meninas, or the ____, Diego Velázquez dissolved his forms into small, roughly textured brushstrokes that would be the hallmark of ____ two centuries later.
maids in waiting; Impressionism
After Martin Luther's Reformation, Dutch artists painted scenes of daily life, whereas Flemish artists ____.
continued painting religious and mythological scenes as in Baroque Italy
Which of the following Baroque painters was an ambassador, diplomat, and court painter to dukes and kings and supervised a huge workshop of assistants?
Peter Paul Rubens
Peter Paul Ruben's The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus depicts a scene from Greek mythology in which two mortal women are seized by ____, the twin sons of Zeus.
Castor and Pollux
During the Baroque period, Protestant Dutch artists sold most of the works they produced to ____.
the middle class
All of Rembrandt's paintings, drawings, and prints seem to focus on ____.
introspection and psychological situations
In his Syndics of the Draper's Guild, Rembrandt captures the men just as ____.
someone outside the canvas enters the room
Which of the following does not describe Jan Vermeer's Young Woman with a Water Jug?
The colors are harsh and garish
Before the Baroque period ended, ____ began to replace Rome as the center of the art world and ____ was the principal exponent of its official style.
France; Nicolas Poussin
Nicolas Poussin's Rape of the Sabine Women utilizes a(n) ____, thereby borrowing a Renaissance technique for structuring a balanced composition.
In the Palace at Versailles, all of the following elements echo Renaissance techniques except that the ____.
palace interior is lavishly decorated with dramatic vistas
In Jean-Honoré Fragonard's Happy Accidents of the Swing, all of the following are characteristics of the Rococo and depicted in the painting except ____.
classically inspired facial features
Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun painted the portrait of Marie Antoinette and Her Children in an attempt to portray the queen as ____.
a loving devoted mother
In the Baroque period, England's most significant contribution to the arts was in the realm of ____.
During World War II, Winston Churchill took extraordinary measures to protect ____ from the Nazi Blitz.
St. Paul's Cathedral
Which of the following historical personalities is not associated with the Enlightenment?
King Louis XVI
For his Grand Manner portraiture, Thomas Gainsborough employed all of the following pictorial devices except ____.
dramatic, looming clouds
Where was Pope John Paul II's body placed for viewing before it was moved to St. Peter's in April of 2005?
In the apse of St. Peter's, Bernini combined architecture, sculpture, and stained glass to produce the brilliant golden display known as the ____.
For The Conversion of St. Paul, Caravaggio selected the models in his painting from ____.
In both of their paintings of Judith Decapitating Holofernes, Caravaggio and Artemisia Gentileschi utilized a harsh, theatrical "spotlight" effect known as ____.
Baciccio's Triumph of the Sacred Name of Jesus in Il Gesu in Rome achieves a trompe l'oeil effect by combining painted figures with ____.
white stucco modeled sculptures and a gilded stucco ceiling
Francesco Borromini's ____ is an organic building that incorporates the Baroque elements of motion, space, and light.
San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane
In the central part of Africa, ____ was developed to cast small bronze sculptures as early as the 9th century.
the lost wax technique
In the highly decorated stone effigy of Coatlicue, the Aztec ____, her skirt is formed from ____.
Mother of Gods; carved serpents
In Spanish Colonial art, indigenous art forms were integrated with European influences. Examples of Meso-American motifs include all of the following except ____.
the lion image
The Incas from Peru were engineering geniuses and built both the fortress of Machu Picchu and the ____, which was 30 feet wide and walled for its entire 3750 miles.
Royal Road of the Mountains
As is often the case in ethnographic art, the decorations on the Kwakiutl headdress from British Columbia reflects designs similar to those found in ____.
tattooing and body decoration
The most striking feature of the Great Mosque at Samarra, Iraq, is the spiral ____, from which a crier known as a ____ called followers to prayer at certain hours.
After his death, the cremated remains of Buddha (formerly Siddhartha) were supposedly placed in eight different ____, or places of worship and devotion for his followers.
It is believed that at one time the two colossal Buddhas, carved out of living rock at Bamiyan, Afghanistan, and destroyed by the Taliban in 2001, were ____.
gilded, plastered and painted
Many Chinese still follow the precepts of ____, which believe that social behavior must be derived from sympathy for one's fellows.
Chinese ceramics, like the blue and white Ming Dynasty vase, were often ____, meaning that the decoration was molded or incised beneath rather than on top of the glaze
In the bronze Altar of the Hand from Benin, which of the following is not meant to venerate the king and glorify his divine office?
The king is surrounded by symmetrical, symbolic forms.
In much of Chinese art there is a non-Western type of reverence for nature in which people are seen as ____.
integral parts of the order of nature
____, the native religion of Japan, teaches love of nature and the existence of many beneficent gods; however, ____ is/are symbolized in art.
Shinto; no gods
The Kumano Mandala, a 14th-century scroll representing three Shinto shrines, is characterized by all of the following except a(n) ____.
use of one-point perspective to create depth
The realism in The Sage Kuya Invoking the Amida Buddha's is demonstrated in the fact that the artist tried to render speech with six tiny Buddhas representing ____ coming out of the sage's mouth.
syllables of a prayer repeating the name of Buddha
Hasegawa Tohaku's Pine Wood screen depicts all of the following except ____.
a background consisting of hazy mountains
Vincent van Gogh was so taken with Japanese woodblocks that he made an oil painting of ____.
Hiroshige's Rain Shower on Ohashi Bridge
The Yoruba from Nigeria make elaborate masks and headdresses for use in ceremonial performances known as ____, which combine music, dance, and fanciful costumes.
African masks have always varied widely in style from tribe to tribe, but ____ art was heavily influenced by simple, abstract, geometric examples such as the Etoumba mask.
The Nkisi Nkondi or Hunter Figure from the Congo is considered a ____ because nails were hammered into it to ward off evil and cause pain to wrongdoers.
The Islamic Great Mosque at Djenne in Mali is based on the model of Muhammad's home in Medina and exhibits all of the following characteristics except ____.
a single tower rising in the center of the structure
Over 600 huge, jutting, monolithic figures, all with the same angular sweep of nose and chin, still survive on ____.
The mixed media ancestral poles from New Guinea are vividly painted, elongated figures with openwork banners that represent ____.
Although the Mayans, Incas, and Aztecs of Meso-America all made great advances in their civilizations prior to the arrival of the Spanish, they also all shared the practice of ____.
What was modern about the "new" art of the late 18th century in France was its concept of ____. The first period of modern art to use planar recession was ____.
The dissolution of surfaces and study of local color was central to ____ art, which is dramatically evident in a series of canvases depicting ____ from a variety of angles, during different times of day and seasons.
Claude Monet's; Rouen Cathedral
Of all of the Impressionists, Pierre-Auguste Renoir was the ____, as evidenced in his Le Moulin de la Galette.
most significant figure painter
Which of the following statements about Edgar Degas is not true?
His pictorial spatial organization was derived from Renaissance prototypes.
The Post-Impressionist Georges Seurat's painting technique is known as ____, which is a meticulous application of pigment that he derived from the study of ____.
Pointillism; color theories
The movement away from a realistic representation of subjects toward abstraction took many forms, but Paul Cézanne led the way toward modernism with his ____, as seen in his Still Life with Basket of Apples.
drastic collapsing of space, forcing imagery to the picture plane
In his ____, Vincent van Gogh's vibrant colors, characteristic long, thin strokes and feverish application of paint creates an emotionalism that turns a sleepy town into a cosmic display.
It is obvious that Paul Gauguin's Vision After the Sermon is a Synthetic painting because ____.
it combines unnaturalistic color with symbolism
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec's deformity led to an alienation from his family so he instead found a home in ____, as depicted in At the Moulin Rouge.
the cabarets, cafes, and bordellos of Paris
"I saw the flaming clouds like blood and a sword--the bluish-black fjord and town--my friends walked on--I stood there-trembling with anxiety--and I felt as though Nature were convulsed by a great unending scream." This quote is describing ____.
Edvard Munch's The Scream
____ was an American Expatriate painter who spent most of her life in France primarily painting scenes of women and children
The Neoclassical style is characterized by all of the following except ____.
virtuoso brushwork and a brilliant palette
In The Outbreak, Käthe Kollwitz tried to symbolize ____ through her forceful depiction of the 16th-century Peasants' War.
man's inhumanity to man
James Abbott McNeill Whistler's Arrangement in Black and Gray: The Artist's Mother exhibits a combination of realism and abstraction that was strongly influenced by ____.
Gustave Courbet and Japanese prints
The shocking realism depicted in Thomas Eakins' The Gross Clinic stems from his ____.
experience working with live models and dissecting corpses
The Hudson River School was a group of artists who painted the beauty of the natural American landscape with a sense of romanticism that was embodied in the writings of ____.
James Fenimore Cooper
Auguste Rodin's The Burghers of Calais is considered a groundbreaking Impressionist sculpture because of its ____.
intense realism and highly textured surfaces that capture the play of light
The famous Neoclassical painter ____ painted herself into her allegorical work entitled The Artist in the Character of Design Listening to the Inspiration of Poetry.
For his Neoclassical sculpture of Pauline Borghese, Antonio Canova chose to portray her as ____.
Architect Benjamin Latrobe was responsible for which of the following designs?
the design for the Oval Office
In the Grande Odalisque, the articulation of the heavy drapery contrasts with the crisp treatment of the linens and sensual lines of the harem mistress's body, revealing that, above all else, Ingres was a ____.
The most famous Rubeniste and Ingres's archrival was ____, whose dynamic painting of The Death of Sardanapalus was inspired by a tragedy by ____.
Francisco Goya, who was neither Neoclassicist nor Romantic, is best known for his ____, one of the most famous of which is The Third of May, 1808.
graphic representation of man's inhumanity to man
The modern Realist painters of the 19th century, including Honoré Daumier and Édouard Manet, were bound by all of the following except they ____.
were preoccupied with the science of optics
Gustave Courbet's manifesto reads "To record the manners, ideas, and aspects of the age as I myself saw them - to be a man as well as a painter - in short to create a living art - that is my aim." Courbet is considered the father of ____.
As depicted in Le Déjeuner sur l'Herbe, Édouard Manet utilized all but one of the following "modern" painting techniques:
He modeled his figures using chiaroscuro.
The setting of Édouard Manet's reclining nude figure of Olympia is a(n) ____.
bordello of the Parisian demimonde
In art, a ____ is usually defined as a moving dot and is both the simplest and most complex of the visual elements.
From the Italian for "light-dark," what term is sometimes used in place of the word modeling?
A triangular glass solid that breaks down sunlight or white light into different colors is called a ____.
The message or meaning in Helen Frankenthaler's amorphous abstract Bay Side seems to lie primarily in its ____.
Which of the following statements does not set the Fauves apart from their 19th-century predecessors?
Their subject matter centered on traditional nudes, still-lifes, and landscapes.
____ compositions, such as Picasso's The Bottle of Suze, use a technique known as ____ to emphasize the form of the object and its construction rather than its disintegration.
Synthetic Cubist; collage
Alexander Archipenko's Walking Woman displays an important innovation in Cubist sculpture: the use of ____
void space as solid form
In Umberto Boccioni's Dynamism of a Soccer Player, we see the ____ obsession with illustrating images in perpetual motion.
The Futurists' belief that their subjects were less important than the portrayal of a "dynamic sensation" is very evident in Giacomo Balla's constantly "moving" painting known as ____.
The American photographer ____ first supported the development of abstract art in America by exhibiting modern European works alongside American art in his ____.
Alfred Stieglitz; 291 Gallery
For works such as White Iris, Georgia O'Keeffe captured the essence of her subject utilizing all of the following techniques except ____.
using a dark and psychologically distressing color palette
In 1913, the groundbreaking ____ was held in New York City and dominated by avant-garde European artists who would heavily influence subsequent American art. The most scandalous work at the exhibition was Marcel Duchamp's ____, which was dismissed as a "pile of kindling wood."
Armory Show; Nude Descending a Staircase #2
"All painting is composed of line and color. Line and color are the essence of painting. Hence they must be freed from their bondage to the imitation of nature and allowed to exist for themselves." An example of a painting this artist is referring to is ____.
Piet Mondrian's Composition with Red, Blue, and Yellow
In Constantin Brancusi's sculptures, such as Bird in Space, he reached for the essence of the subject by ____.
finding the simplest form that, along with a title, would fire recognition in the viewer
The representation of incredible images from the artist's mind is known as ____, and one of the most whimsical of these artists is ____.
Fantastic art; Paul Klee
Henri Matisse consolidated all of the following influences into his Fauvist canvases except ____.
the stark realism of Courbet
For his Twittering Machine, Paul Klee was influenced in part by ____.
ethnographic and children's art
The works of Giorgio de Chirico, such as The Mystery and Melancholy of the Street, are characterized by all of the following except ____.
compositions that appear frenzied and agitated
Along with their interest in psychoanalysis, the Surrealists also incorporated some of the attitudes and techniques of the ____ movements.
Dada and Fantastic art
Surrealism began as a literary movement after World War I, and the group based their writings on the nonrational using a technique known as ____ writing.
Joan Miró said, "My way is to seize an image that moment it has formed in my mind, to trap it as a bird and to pin it at once to canvas. Afterward I start to tame it, to master it. I bring it under control, and I develop it." Miró was a(n) ____.
The artists who began the Die Brücke movement chose that name because ____.
they saw their movement as bridging a number of disparate styles
Of works such as the Red Room, Henri Matisse said it should be "a mental soother, something like a good armchair in which to rest." This is because Matisse's primary concern was to ____.
create a pleasing pattern
The Die Brücke painter Emil Nolde painted Dance Around the Golden Calf, a lush, colorful, frenzied depiction of a(n) ____.
Biblical event related to the worshiping of an idol by the Israelites
Wassily Kandinsky, a major proponent of ____, is recognized as the first painter of ____.
Der Blaue Reiter; pure abstraction
In Wasily Kandinsky's Sketch I for Composition VII, all of the following elements are found except ____.
a mood of impending doom and despair
____ shut down the Bauhaus in 1933, forcing many of its faculty, including Walter Gropius and Mies van der Rohe, to flee to the United States.
Cubism was heavily influenced by Paul Cézanne in all but one of the following ways:
intense interest in native African and Iberian sculpture
The term Cubism, coined by a hostile critic, is limiting because it is an inadequate description that ignores the movement's most significant contribution: a new treatment of pictorial space that ____.
rendered objects from multiple and radically different views
____ is characterized by spontaneous execution, large gestural brushstrokes, abstract or abstracted imagery, and intense color fields, all produced on large, monumental canvases.
One major tenet of Pop Art is that the work should be so objective, commercialized, and mundane that it eliminates the ____.
personal signature of the artist
In Robert Rauschenberg's combine painting The Bed, he uses a(n) ____ as his canvas.
quilt and pillow
Superrealism is firmly rooted in a long, realistic tradition in the arts but, as a recognized artistic movement of the 1970s, it is also in part a reaction against ____.
20th-century abstraction and expressionism
Richard Anuszkiewicz painted Entrance to Green fully realizing that his line and color selections would produce ____.
a sense of movement and vibration
The title of Jennifer Bartlett's composition Spiral: An Ordinary Evening in New Haven is an integral part of the work. This interplay between the verbal and the visual is one of the hallmarks of ____.
New Image painting
The Neo-Expressionists of the 1980s revived and embraced the gestural and experimentational methods of the Abstract Expressionists but they added the dimension of ____ to their work.
narrative and content
British sculptor Henry Moore had a long and prolific career but is primarily renowned today for his ____.
abstract, biomorphic bronze reclining figures
Jean Tinguely once remarked that "The only stable thing is movement." This reminds us that he was a ____ sculptor.
Jackie Winsor considers her sculpture Exploded Piece to be a(n) ____ because she exploded it and then reconstructed it back into a cube.
Like many of Arshile Gorky's later paintings, The Liver is the Cock's Comb is composed of unstable, organic shapes that remind us of ____.
In the 1980s, a group of anonymous women artists banded together to fight injustice against women in the art market. They were known as ____.
the Guerrilla Girls
In Deconstructivist architectural design, buildings are intended to be seen in ____.
bits and pieces
Feminist artist Ana Mendieta draped her body in mud for her performance piece, Arbol de la Vida. In terms of its visual impact, most viewers who saw it were likely ____ by its extraordinary contrasts of texture.
By the 1970s, some architectural historians began to argue that Modernist steel-cage rectangular solids were threatening to ____.
bury the nation's cities in boredom
Modern architecture encompassed many architectural visions, including those of all but which one of the following architects?
Minimalist artists of the 1960s were committed to ____ as the basis for their compositions
intellectual theory and mathematics
Which of the following is not considered Deconstructivist architecture?
Gordon Bunshaft's Lever House
Hans Hoffman is considered a key post-war transitional artist whose paintings, such as The Golden Wall, were influenced by ____
Fauvist coloring and Cubist design
The term ____ was coined in 1951 to describe the process of dripping and splattering paint on huge canvases, a technique associated primarily with ____.
action painting; Jackson Pollock
In his eroticized Two Women's Torsos, Willem de Kooning combines biomorphic, organic shapes with harsh, jagged lines; however, we also see that he is one of the few Abstract Expressionists who never completely surrendered ____ painting.
Helen Frankenthaler's ____ is in many ways a reconciliation between gesture and color-field Abstract Expressionism.
Alice Neel is best known for her ____ portraits, a collection of souls handpicked from all strata of society.
stark, unflinchingly realistic
Francis Bacon's Head Surrounded by Sides of Beef is a raw and distorted reworking of ____.
Velázquez's Pope Innocent X
____, once called the "most ambitious piece of jewelry since the crown jewels," is a diamond encrusted skull by British artist Damien Hirst.
For the Love of God
Anselm Keifer's paintings and monumental sculpture all reflect the heavy weight of his consciousness as a ____.
Swiss artist Pipilotti Rist was the first artist to adapt a ____ aesthetic and her most common subject is ____.
music-video; her own nude body
Designed by architect ____, the Chicago Spire has become the tallest structure in North America.
In his photograph ____, Adi Nes depicts a homeless man wheeling his child through Tel Aviv to point out the discrepancies between the dream of Israel and its harsh reality.
Abraham and Isaac
Baghdad born Zaha Hadid is a ____ architect who describes her design for the Abu Dhabi Performing Arts Center as ____.
deconstructivist: "a biological analogy"
"Asexual, dressed in Mao suits, their glaze glassy and dismal" describes which of the artworks below?
Zhang Xiaogang's Big Family
For his Central Chinese Television Building in Beijing, Rem Koolhaas designed a(n) ____.
Appropriation artist Vik Muniz collected ____ from a neighborhood in ____ for his Sisyphus, after Titian.
junk; Rio de Janeiro
Japanese artist Mariko Mori can be described as all of the following except ____.
a painter and a sculptress
Matthew Barney, considered by Stephen Holden of the NY Times to be "the most important artist of his generation," is best known for his Cremaster series of ____.
Bridging the boundaries between fine art and craft, Betty Woodman sees the ____ as a cultural common denominator.
Which of the following paintings did Eve Sussman attempt to reenact on a Brooklyn tennis court?
David's The Intervention of the Sabine Women
Kara Walker's ____ have captured the attention of the art world and given voice to her comments on the brutal history of race relations in America
life-size paper cutouts
Which of the following is not a title of one of the works done for Cai Guo-Qiang's installation on the roof of the Metropolitan Museum of Art?
Freedom from Want
Hew Locke's El Dorado is a nine and a half foot tall assemblage of ____ arranged in the shape of a bust of Queen Elizabeth II.
The art produced by the people of the Caribbean and Latin America tends to reflect all of the following themes except ____.
affection for the colonizing country
In Cuban artist Alexandre Arrechea's Architectural Elements II, his primary theme seems to relate to ____.
a sense of quiet desperation
Mexican artist Enrique Chagoya has sketched portraits of world political figures cast in the roles of ____.
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs