Biochemistry

Created by schoi94 

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36 terms

atom

the basic unit of life

nucleus

strong forces that bind protons and neutrons together

electron

a negatively charged particle

element

a pure substance that consists entirely of one atom

isotope

atoms of the same electrons that differ in neutrons

covalent bond

forms hen electrons are shared between atoms

molecule

the smallest unit of most compounds

van der waals forces

intermolecular forces of attraction

cohesion

an attraction between molecules of the properties

adhesion

an attraction between molecules

mixture

a material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together

solution

a type of mixture where all the components are distributed evenly

solute

the substance that is dissolved

solvent

the substance in which something dissolves

suspensions

mixture of water and non dissolved material

pH scale

a system that helps indicate the concentration of a substance

acid

any compound that forms H+ ions in a solution

base

a compound that produces hydroxide ions

buffers

weak acids/bases that can react with strong acids/bases

monomers

smaller units that make up polymers

carbohydrates

compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. plants and animals use carbohydrates for energy

polysaccharides

multiple sugar molecules

lipids

made mostly from carbon and hydrogens

nucleic acids

macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygens, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus

nucleotides

five carbon sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogenerons

RNA

sugar ribose

DNA

sugar deoxyribose

proteins

macromoleucules that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

amino acids

compounds with an amino group

chemical reactions

a process that changes and transforms one set of chemicals into another

reactants

elements/compounds that enter into a chemical quickly

products

elements/compounds produced by a chemical reaction

activation energy

the energy needed to get a reaction started

catalyst

a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction

enzymes

proteins that act as biological catalysts

substrates

the reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions

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