policy and/or programs for minorities supported by government as a means of providing equality under the law and remedy the effects of past discrimination
Americans with Disabilities Act
act that required employers, schools, and public buildings to reasonably accommodate the physical needs of handicapped individuals by providing such things as ramps and elevators with appropriate facilities.
Muller v. Oregon 1908
that spoke about inherent differences between men and women in the workplace.
application of equal protection under the law to individuals - laws prohibiting racial and gender discrimination
de facto segregation
segregation of schools and other public facilities through circumstance with no law supporting it.
de jure segregation
segregation by law, made illegal by Brown v Board of Education.
Immigration Act of 1991
act that shifted the quota of immigrants to Europe and aimed to attract immigrants who were trained workers.
Jim Crow Laws
legislation that legalized segregation even after the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Plessy v. Ferguson 1896
case that ruled that states had the right to impose "separate but equal" facilities on its citizens as well as create other laws that segregated the races.
Seneca Falls Convention
in 1848, Elizabeth Cady Stanton led the fight for political suffrage and supported a doctrine very similar in nature to the Declaration of Independence called the Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions. It became a rallying document in the fight for women's rights.
guaranteed women the right to vote
Equal Rights Amendment
failed constitutional amendment that stated equality under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the US or by any state on account of sex
Equal Pay Act of 1963
pay women and men equal pay for equal work
Reed v. Reed 1971
created a new standard for judging constitutionality in sex discrimination cases
Title IX of the Education Act of 1972
forbids educational institutions receive federal funds from discriminating against female students (created women athletics in colleges
Separate but equal
upheld Jim Crow segregation by approving separate but equal public facilities for African Americans --- judicial precedent established in the Plessy v Ferguson decision that enabled states to interpret the equal protection provision of the Fourteenth Amendment as a means of establishing segregation.
race and ethnic background is inherently suspect and must be justified by a compelling public interest
Dred Scott v. Sandform 1857
African Americans are NOT citizens and thus could not petition the Supreme Court - overturn by the 14th Amendment
13th, 14th and 15th Amendments
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka 1954
ruled theta racially segregated schools violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment and reversed the principle of separate but equal established in Plessy
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke 1978
ruled that the medical school's strict quota system denied Bakke the equal protection guaranteed by the 14th Amendment - ruled the race could be used as one factor among others in the competition for available places
Grutter v. Bollinger 2003
upheld the affirmative action policy of the University of Michigan law school and the Bakke ruling that race could be a consideration in admission policy, but that quotas are illegal
Grantz v. Bollinger 2003
stuck down undergraduate admission policy that automatically awarded appellants from underrepresented racial and minority groups - violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th
Civil Rights Act of 1964
ended Jim Crow segregation by making racial discrimination illegal in public accommodations; prohibited employment discrimination; expanded upon through interstate commerce clause (Heart v. Atlanta)
pay to vote
pass difficult reading comprehension questions before they could register to vote
excluded African American form voting in primary elections
prohibited poll taxes in federal elections
Voting Rights Act of 1965
outlawed literacy tests and other discriminatory practices that have disenfranchises African Americans; provide for federal oversight of voter registration
oddly shaped districts designed to give minority groups voters a numerical majority
Shaw v. Reno 1993
racial gerrymandering would be held to a standard of strict scrutiny under the Equal Protection Clause