Ch. 24: Life in the Emerging Urban Society

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Edwin Chadwick

(1840s)
~ Bethamite (philosophy that public problems ought to be dealt with on scientific/utilitarian basis)
~ cleaning the urban environment could avert disease
~ encouraged creation of sewage system (specifically carried in pipes)
~ basis for GB's first public health law (1848)
~ handicapped by miasmatic theory

miasmatic theory

~ idea that bad odors carried disease
~ replaced by germ theory in 1840s-50s

germ theory

(developed in 1850s)
~ Pasteur >> pasteurization
~ contagion spread through filth, not caused by it

Why did Napoleon III rebuild Paris?

(mid-1850s)
~ provided employment
~ improve living conditions
~ testify to Fr. glory
~ directed by Georges Haussman

How was the religious pattern of the 1800s different in the US than in Europe?

~ church/state had always been separate
~ there'd always been a host of denominations/religions
~ churches identified w/ ethnic groups rather than social classes

Name examples of "R & D" in the late 1800s.

theoretical discoveries >> material imprvmts & economic growth
~ Pasteur's work/germ theory
~ thermodynamics
~ new fields of chemistry/electricity

Origin of Species

(1859)
~ Darwin's idea of natural selection
~ gave rise to Social Darwinism

Realism

(1840s-1890s)
~ forsake emotional style of romantics for scientific objectivity
~ Zola, Balzac, Flaubert discussed mundane subjects
~ heredity & environment determine all human behavior
~ Tolstoy's War & Peace

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