John F. Kennedy
Ran for President as a Democrat in 1960 and beat Richard Nixon.
Robert F. Kennedy
JFK's brother; his attorney general; helped reorganize the FBI.
Robert S. McNamara
Secretary of Defense under JFK; used the "flexible response" strategy.
Charles de Gaulle
President of France; was suspicious of American intentions in Europe and took actions to prevent any direct U.S. involvement in European affairs.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Influential leader of the Civil Rights movement; advocated peaceful protest and other methods to obtain better treatment for African-Americans.
Lee Harvey Oswald
The man who assassinated JFK by shooting him in the head.
Lyndon B. Johnson
Vice President under JFK; took over once JFK had been assassinated; carried through help to the Civil Rights movement and to New Deal measures.
Republican candidate who ran against Johnson in 1964; lost.
Leader of the Black Power movement; advocated an end to peaceful methods used by MLK Jr. and desired a militant end to suffering for blacks.
Became head of the SNCC in 1966; an advocate of Black Power.
J. William Fulbright
An extremely vocal hater of any U.S. intervention or involvement in Vietnam.
Ran against incumbent Johnson in 1968 on an anti-Vietnam campaign.
Hubert H. Humphrey
Vice President under Johnson; ran against Nixon and lost in the 1968 election.
Richard M. Nixon
Ran against JFK as the Republican candidate in 1960.
A third party candidate who advocated continued segregation and a strict military action against North Vietnam.
Invented by McNamara; advocated greater military spending to provide multiple "options" for varying responses in various military engagements.
A policy toward the Soviet Union that was encouraged by JFK.
A term used to describe perceived inconsistencies between Johnson's statements on the war in Vietnam and the reality.
Referred to space as the new frontier for America.
A program initially conceived of by JFK; proposed a huge group of young volunteers to help bring American benefits to other less-fortunate countries.
A meeting between JFK and Soviet Union leader Khrushchev discussing multiple subjects, including nuclear disarmament and the status of Berlin.
Trade Expansion Act
Gave the President the authority to enact huge tariff cuts in order to open up trade with other countries.
The communist army of North Vietnam.
Alliance for Progress
A program designed to give financial aid to Latin American countries to help close the gap between rich and poor; didn't work that well; Marshall Plan for Latin America.
Bay of Pigs
An attempt made by the U.S. to send in Cuban rebels to assassinate Fidel Castro; it failed and eventually led to the Cuban Missile Crisis.
War on Poverty
A name given to the Great Society measures; referred to a phrase used by Johnson.
A number of measures following in the footsteps of the New deal in an attempt to provide welfare and other help to the people of America.
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
Gave the President (Johnson) power to use military power in Southeast Asia without a declaration of war from Congress.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Banned segregation in many public institutions and strengthened the power of the government to establish and enforce integration.
Cuban missile crisis
An intense span of thirteen days during which the U.S. and Soviet Union engaged in tense negotiations over nuclear missiles that were being built and aimed at the U.S. in Cuba.
Nuclear test-ban treaty
An agreement made with the Soviet Union that prohibited nuclear weapons testing above ground.
March on Washington
A march of 200,000 black people protesting bad treatment and segregation; led by MLK Jr.
Outlawed poll taxes (taxes given to anyone voting as a means to obstruct blacks from voting).
Voting Rights Act
Outlawed literacy tests as a means of preventing black people from voting; also required federal registrars to be present to enforce fair voting.
Operation Rolling Thunder
Ordered by President Johnson; began full-scale bombing of North Vietnam.
The U.S.S. Pueblo, a ship in the U.S. Navy, was boarded and captured by North Vietnamese forces just weeks after Johnson's inauguration.
An offensive of the Viet Cong against South Vietnam; started the Vietnam War.
A "culture" set up in opposition to the popular ideals of American society; stressed freedom and harmony.