The second major wave of immigration to the US; between 1865-1910, 25 million new immigrants arrived. Unlike earlier immigration, which had come primarily from Wester and Northern Europe, the New Immigrants came mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, fleeing prosecution and poverty. Language barriers and cultural differences produced mistrust by Americans.
Chinese Exclusion Law
1882 - Denied citizenship to Chinese in the US and forbade further immigration of Chinese. Supported by American workers who worried about losing their jobs to Chinese immigrants who would work for less pay.
Also known as "The Eight", a group of American Naturalist Painters formed in 1907, most of whom had formerly been newspaper illustrators, they believed in portraying scenes from everyday life in starkly realistic detail. Their 1908 display was the first fine art show in the US.
1862 - Set aside public land in each state to be used for building colleges.
French for "new rich". Referred to people who had become rich through business rather than through having been born into a rich family. The nouveau riche made up much of the American upper class of the late 1800's.
Carry A. Nation
1846-1901 - A prohibitionist. She believed that bars and other liquor-related businesses should be destroyed, and was known for attacking saloons herself with a hatchet.
A series of post-Civil War Supreme Court cases containing the first judicial pronouncements on the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments. The Court held that these amendments had been adopted solely to protect the rights of freed blacks, and could not be extended to guarantee the civil rights of other citizens against deprivations of due process by state governments. These rulings were disapproved by later decisions.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Prohibited discrimination against blacks in public places, such as inns, amusement parks, and on public transportation. Declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
Booker T. Washington
An educator who urged blacks to better themselves through education and economic advancement, rather than by trying to attain equal rights. In 1881, he founded the first formal school for blacks, the Tuskegee Institute.
W. E. B. DuBois
A black orator and essayist. Helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). He disagreed with Booker T. Washington's theories, and took a militant position on race relations.
Plessy v. Ferguson
1886 - Created the theory of "separate but equal" which was later declared unconstitutional in the case Brown v. Board of Education.
Jim Crow Laws
State laws which created a racial caste system in the South. They included laws which prevented blacks from voting and those which created segregated facilities.
Said that a citizen could vote only if his grandfather had been able to vote. At the time, the grandfathers of black men in the South had been slaves with no right to vote. Another method for disenfranchising blacks.
1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.
Indian Appropriations Act
1851 - The US government reorganized Indian land and moved the Indians onto reservations.
Dawes Severalty Act
1887 - Also called the General Allotment Act, it tried to dissolve Indian tribes by redistributing land. Designed to forestall growing Indian property, it resulted in many Indians losing their lands to their speculators.
Helen Hunt Jackson
A muckraker whose book, A Century of Dishonor, exposed the unjust manner in which the US government had treated the Indians. Protested the Dawes Severalty Act.
Frederick Jackson Turner
American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. (Called the "Frontier Thesis") The frontier provided a place for the homeless and solved social problems.
Depression of 1893
Profits dwindled and businesses went bankrupt and slid into debt. Causes loss of business confidence. 20% of the workforce was unemployed. Led to the Pullman Strike.
Populist Party Platform
Officially named the People's Party, but commonly known as the Populist Party, it was founded in 1891 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Wrote a platform for the 1892 election in which they called for free coinage of silver and paper money; national income tax; direct election of senators; regulation of railroads; and other government reforms to help farmers.
Election of 1896: Candidates
Election of 1896: Issues
McKinley was for the North and high tariffs.
Bryan was for the West and South and was for a low tariff. Other main issues were the coinage of silver.
In Re Debs
1894 - Eugene Debs organized the Pullman strike. A federal court found him guilty of restraint of trade, stopping US mail, and disobeying a government injunction to stop the strike. He later ran for president as a candidate of the Social Democratic Party.
Term used to describe the sensationalist newspaper writings of the time. They were written on cheap yellow paper. The most famous yellow journalist was William Randolf Hearst. Yellow journalism was considered tainted journalism - omissions and half-truths.
Wrote Our Country, and argued that the American country and people were superior because they were Anglo-Saxon.
Captain Alfred Thayler Mahn
In 1890, he wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon History. He was a proponent of building a large navy. He said that a new, modern navy was necessary to protect the international trade America depended on.
Annexation of Hawaii
By the late 1800's, the US had exclusive use of Pearl Harbor. In July 1898, Congress made Hawaii a US territory, for the use of the islands as naval ports.
Rough Riders, San Juan Hill
1898 - Teddy Roosevelt formed the Rough Riders (volunteers) to fight in the Spanish-American War in Cuba. They charged up San Juan HIll during the battle of Santiago. It made Roosevelt popular.
1896 - US declared Cuba free from Spain, but the Teller Amendment disclaimed any American intention to annex Cuba.
A rider to the Army Appropriations Bill of 1901, it specified the conditions under which the US could intervene in Cuba's internal affairs, and provided that Cuba could not make a treaty with another nation that might impair its independence. Its provisions were later incorporated into the Cuban Constitution.
Spheres of Influence
Region in which political and economic control is exerted by a European nation to the exclusion of all others. Spheres of influence appeared primarily in the East, and also in Africa.
Election of 1900
William McKinley, Republican, defeated William Bryan, Democrat. The main issue was imperialism.
1901 - Great Britain recognized US Sphere of Influence over the Panama canal zone and provided the canal itself remained neutral. US was given full control over construction and management of the canal.
US would act as international policemen. An addition the the Monroe Doctrine.
In 1907, Roosevelt arranged with Japan that Japan would voluntarily restrict the emigration of its nationals to the US.
Democracy, Efficiency, Pragmatism
Three characteristics that the US felt made them superior to other countries. Many US cities in the 1900's to 1920's instituted modern "scientific" political systems, such at the use of professional city managers, to replace inefficient traditional machine politics. The US tried to spread these ideas abroad.
Journalists who searched for and publicized real or alleged acts of corruption of public officials, businessmen, ect. Name coined by Teddy Roosevelt in 1906.
Wrote How the Other Half Lives, which exposed social and political evils.
Oliver Wendel Holmes, Jr.
A famous justice of the Supreme Court during the early 1900's. Called the "Great Dissenter" because he spoke out against the imposition of national regulations and standards and supported the states' rights to experiment with social legislature.
Initiative, Referendum, Recall
Initiative: People have the right to propose a new law.
Referendum: A law passed by the legislature can be referenced to the people for approval and or veto.
Recall: The people can petition and vote to have an elected official removed from office. These all made elected officials more responsible and sensitive to the needs of the people, and part of the movement to make government more efficient and scientific.
1906 - Imposed stricter control over railroads and expanded powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission, including giving the ICC the power to set maximum rates.
1909 - With the fear of competition gone, it lowered rates to 38 percent. Democrats felt it did not go far enough and passed the Underwood Tariff in 1913 to further lower taxes.
Taft and Knox came up with it to further foreign policy in the US in 1909-1913 under the Roosevelt Corollary. It was meant to avoid military intervention by giving foreign countries monetary aid.
They split over ideology. Roosevelt believed in breaking up "bad" trusts while allowing "good" trust to continue. Taft opposed all trusts. Roosevelt wanted more involvement in foreign affairs, and Taft was an isolationist. Roosevelt ran against Taft in 1912.
Woodrow Wilson - New Freedom
He believed that monopolies had to be broken up and that the government must regulate business. He believed in competition, and called his economic plan "New Freedom".
Theodore Roosevelt, New Nationalism
A system in which government authority would be balanced and coordinate economic activity. Government would regulate business.
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
1914 - Extended the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890 to give it more power against trusts and big business. It outlawed practices that had a dangerous likelihood of creating a monopoly, even if no unlawful agreement was involved.
Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan
Served as Secretary of State under Wilson from 1913-1915, he resigned in protest of US involvement in WWI.
Triple Entente; Allies
Britain, France, and Russia all had economic and territorial ambitions and they all disliked Germany, so they formed an alliance for protection.
Triple Entente; Central Powers
Germany, Austria, and Hungary formed an alliance for protection against the Triple Entente.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
This was the German practice of attacking any and all shipping to countries it was at war with. It annoyed neutral countries (US included)
Wilson's idea that he wanted included in the WWI peace treaty, including freedom of the seas and the League of Nations.
Senate Rejection, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Reservations
Lodge was against the League of Nations, so he packed the foreign relations committee with critics and was successful in convincing the Senate to reject the treaty.
Harding wanted a return to "normalcy" or the way of life before WWI.
The popular name of the "Peoples Party", formed in the 1890's as a coalition of Midwest farm groups, socialists, and labor organizations, such as the American Federation of Labor. It attacked monopolies, and wanted other reforms, such as bimetallism, transportation regulation, the 8 hour work day, and income tax.
The "Lost Generation"
Writer Gertrude Stein named the new literary movement when she told Hemmingway, "You are all a lost generation," referring to the many young writers who gathered in Paris after WWI. Hemmingway used the quote in The Sun Also Rises. They thought that the US was materialistic and criticized the conformity.
Prohibition, Volstead Act, Al Capone
Prohibition - 1919: The 18th Amendment outlawed the manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors.
Volstead Act - 1919: Defined what drinks constituted "intoxicating liquors" under the 18th Amendment, and set penalties for violations of prohibition. Al Capone: In Chicago, he was one of the most famous leaders of organized crime of the era.
Immigration Acts and Quota System
1921 - First legislation passed which restricted the number of immigrants. Quota was 357,800, which let in only 2% of the number of people of that nationality that were allowed in 1890. In 1924, the number was lowered to 150,000 per year.
Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes
Hughes was a gifted writer who wrote humorous poems, stories, essays, and poetry. Harlem was a center for black writers, musicians, and intellectuals.
1928 - "Pact of Paris" or "Treaty for the Renunciation of War", it made war illegal as a tool of national policy, allowing only defensive war. The Treaty was generally believed to be useless.
Causes of the Depression
Much debt, stock prices spiraling up, over-production and under-consuming. The stock market crash. Germany's default on reparations caused European bank failures, which spread to the US.
Congressional comprise serving special interest, it raised duties on agricultural and manufactured imports. It may have contributed to the spread of international depression.
"Relief, Recovery, Reform"
The first step in FDR's relief program was to establish the Civilian Conservation Corps in April, 1933. The chief measure designed to promote recovery was the National Industrial Recovery Act. The New Deal acts most often classified as reform measures were those designed to guarantee the rights of labor and limit the powers of business.
Glass-Stegall Banking Reform Act
1933 - Created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corperation, which insures the accounts of depositors of its member banks. It outlawed banks investing in the stock market.
Second New Deal
Some thought the first New Deal did too much and created a big deficit, while others, mostly the elderly, thought it did not do enough. Most of the 1933 legislation was ineffective in stopping the Depression, which led FDR to propose a second series of initiatives in 1935, referred to as the Second New Deal.