WHAP Glossary

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Abacus

An ancient chinese counting device that used rods on which were mounted movable counters.

Absolute Monarchy

Absoulute ruler, did not follow constitution.

Afrikaners

South Africans descended from Dutch and French settlers of the seventeenth century.

Age grade

An age group into which children were placed in Bantu societies of early sub-Saharan Africa; children within the age grade were given responsibilities and privileges suitable for their age and in this manner were prepared for adult responsibilities

Agricultural Revolution

Neolithic Revolution, was from 8000-2000 B.C.E, Foraging to a agricultural society

Allah

Muslim name for the god of everything.

Alliance in Progress

A program of economic aid for Latin America in exchange for a pledge to establish democratic institutions; part of U.S. President Kennedy's international program.

Al-Qaeda

A terrorist group based in Afghanistan in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.

Animism

Belief that objects have a spirit and or life within them.

Anschluss

The annexation of Austria by Germany in 1938 before WW2

Apartheid

the policy of racial segregation and oppression in the Republic of South Africa

Appeasement

Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.

Aristocracy

hereditary nobility; privileged class; government by nobility; aristocrat

Artifact

object made by human beings

Artisan

a skilled craftsman

Astrolabe

instrument used to determine latitude by measuring the position of the stars

Austronesian

A branch of languages originating in Oceania

Ayatollah

a traditional muslim religious ruler

Ayllus

In Incan society, a clan or community that worked together on projects required by the ruler

Bakufu

A military government established in Japan after the Gempei Wars; the emperor became a figurehead, while real power was concentrated in the military, including the samurai

Bantu-speaking peoples

Name given to a group of sub-Saharan African peoples whose migrations altered the society of sub-Saharan Africa

Battle of Tours

The battle that halted the advance of Muslim armies into Europe at a point in northern France

Benefice

In medieval Europe, a grant of land or other privilege to a vassal

Berlin Conference

To carve out Africa without the consent of the Africans.

Black Death

The common name for a major outbreak of plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-fourteenth century, killing many people.

Bodhisattva

Buddhist holy men; built up spiritual merits during their lifetimes; prayers even after death could aid people to achieve reflected holiness

Boers

Dutch settlers in south Africa

Boer War

Fought between 1899 and 1902 over the continued independence of Boer republics. Resulted in British victory, but began the process of decolonization for whites in South Africa.

Bourgeoisie

city-dwelling middle class, made up of merchants, manufacturers, and professional people such as doctors and lawyers

Boxer rebellion

Chinese rebellion against foreign influence

Boyars

Russian Nobility

Brahmin

the priestly or sacerdotal category of the caste system

Brinkmanship

The Cold War policy of the Soviet Union and the United States of threatening to go to war at a sign of aggression on the part of either power

British Commonwealth

A political community consisting of the United Kingdom, its dependencies, and former colonies of Great Britain that are now sovereign nations; currently called the Commonwealth of Nations.

Bushi

regional warrior leaders in Japan; ruled small kingdoms from fortresses; administered the law, supervised public works projects, and collected revenues; built up private armies

Bushido

Code of conduct for Samurai during the feudal period in Japan

Caliph

a supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government

Calpulli

Aztec clans that supplied labor and warriors to leaders

Capital

money or wealth used to invest in business or enterprise

Capitalism

an economic system based on private ownership of capital

Caravel

A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic.

Cartels

Unions of independent businesses in order to regulate production, prices, and the marketing of goods.

Catholic Reformation

Sixteenth-century Catholic attempt to cure internal ills and confront Protestantism; it was inspired by the reforms of the Council of Trent and the actions of the Jesuits.

Central Powers

in World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies

Chinampas

Raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields., Beds of aquatic weeds, mud, and earth placed in frames made of cane and rooted in lakes to create "floating islands"; system of irrigated agriculture utilized by Aztecs

Chivalry

Code of conduct for knights during the Middle Ages

civilization

a form of culture characterized by cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping, and advanced technology

Climate

Overall weather in an area over a long period of time

Coalition

a temporary alliance of several groups who come together to form a working majority and so to control a government

Code Napoleon

Collection of laws that standardized French law under the rule of Napoleon Bonaparte

Cold War

A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.

Collectivization

combining small farms into large, factory-like farms run by the government.

Colombian Exchange

The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages'

Commercial revolution

the expansion of the trade and buisness that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries.

Communism

an economic system in which the central government directs all major economic decisions

Conscription

a military draft

Conservatism

This was the political idea in which the people regarded tradition as the basic source of human institutions and the proper state and society remained those before the French Revolution which rested on a judicious blend on monarchy, bureaucracy, aristocracy, and respectful commoners

Containment

a U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances

Cossacks

Peasant adventurers with agricultural and military skills recruited to conquer and settle in newly seized lands in southern Russia and Siberia.

Covenant

A solemn agreement between people or between God and man involving mutual commitments and guarantees.

Creoles

People who had Spanish or Portuguese parents but were born in Latin America.

Cubism

An Artistic movement that focused on geometric shapes, complex lines, and overlapping planes.

Cultural diffusion

The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another

Cultural revolution

Chinese movement from 1966 to 1976 intended to establish an egalitarian society of peasants and workers

Cuneiform

Sumerian writing made by pressing a wedge-shaped tool into clay tablets

Daimyo

a japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai

Dar al-Islam

an Arabic term that means the "house of Islam" and that refers to lands under Islamic rule.

Declaration of the Rights of Man

A statement of political rights adopted bythe French N, Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.

Declaration of The Rights of Woman

A statement of the rights of women written by Olympe de Gouges in response to the Declaration to the Rights of Man.

Deism

Was a god who set the world into motion but has left the world up to use to decide for ourselves.

Democracy

a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them

DNA

The blueprint of heredity

Devshirme

in the Ottoman Empire, the policy of taking boys from conquered Christian peoples to be trained as Muslim soldiers

Dharma

in Hinduism, the divine law that rules karma; it requires all people to do their duty based on their status in society

Diaspora

any group migration or flight from a country or region; dispersion.

Divine right

belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god.

Domestic system

a manufacturing system whereby workers make products in their own homes with materials supplied by entrepreneurs.

Duma

Russian Parliament

Dutch learning

Western learning embraced by some Japanese in the eighteenth century

Dynasty

A series of rulers form the same family

Economic imperialism

control of a country's economy by the businesses of another nation

Edict of Milan

a ruling by Constantine that allowed Christians to openly practice their faith in the Roman empire.

Empirical research

Research based on the collection of data

Enclosure movement

practice of fencing or enclosing common lands into individual holdings

Encomienda

A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it

Enlightenment

a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions

Entrepreneurship

the process of starting, organizing, managing, and assuming the responsibility for a business

Estates

social class in pre-revolution France

Estates-General

an assembly of representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes, in France.

Euro

The standard currency introduced and adopted by the majority of members of the European Union in January 2002.

Evangelical

of or pertaining to or in keeping with the Christian gospel especially as in the first 4 books of the New Testament

Excommunication

the most severe penalty for refusing to obey Church laws; if you were excommunicated - could not be buried on sacred ground and could not receive the sacraments

Extraterritoriality

right of foreigners to be protected by the laws of their own nation

Factor

An agent with trade privileges in early Russia

Fascism

a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition

Feminism

the movement aimed at equal rights for women

Feudalism

a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service

Fief

An estate granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for service and loyalty

Filial piety

in Confucian thought, one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors

Five Pillars

beliefs that all Muslims needed to carry out: Faith, Prayer, Alms, Fasting, and Pilgrimage

Five Year Plans

Plans for industrial production first introduced to the Soviet Union in 1928 by Stalin; they succeeded in making the Soviet Union a major industrial power by the end of the 1930s

Footbinding

In China, a method of breaking and binding women's feet; seen as a sign of beauty and social position, footbinding also confined women to the household

Foraging

hunting and gathering

Fundamentalism

movement in which people believe in strictly following certain established principles of teachings

Geneva conference

1954,French wanted out of Vietnam , the agreement signed by Ho Chi Minh France divided Vietnam on the 17th parallel, confining Minh's government to the North. In the South, an independent government was headed by Diem.

Genocide

systematic killing of a racial or cultural group

Geocentric theory

Arrangment of the solar system that places the earth at the center with the sun and planets orbiting the earth

Glasmost

A Soviet policy introduced in 1985 by Mikhail Gorbechev emphasizing "openness" in the sharing of information and ideas.

Glorious revolution

Bloodless overthrow of King James II that ended the Dominion and established William and Mary as the new leaders.

Gold standard

a monetary standard undhttp://quizlet.com/11937722/recreate_set/#er which the basic unit of currency is defined by a stated quantity of gold

Gothic architecture

characterized by pointed arches, high ceilings, flying buttresses, and large stained-glass windows

Gran Colombia

The temporary union of the northern portion of South America after independence movements led by Simón Bólivar; ended in 1830

Great Depression

a severe, world wide economic crisis which lasted from the end of 1929 to the outbreak of World War II.

Great Leap Forward

Started by Mao Zedong, combined collective farms into People's Communes, did not work.

Green revolution

A program of improved irrigation methods and introduction of high-yield seeds and fertilizer and pesticides to improve agricultural production; the green revolution was especially successful in asia but was also used in Latin America.

Griots

Storytellers of sub-Saharan Africa who carried on oral traditions and historians

Guano

Bird droppings used as fertilizer; a major trade item of Peru in the late nineteenth century

Guest workers

Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern of Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs.

Guomindang

Chinese Nationalist party founded by Sun Yat-sen in 1919; drew support from local warlords and Chinese criminal underworld; initially forged alliance with Communists in 1924; dominated by Chiang Kai-shek after 1925

Hadith

The compiled work of the life and teachings of Muhammad.

Hajj

the pilgrimage to Mecca, which every adult Muslim is supposed to make at least once in his or her lifetime: the fifth of the Pillars of Islam.

Harem

a place in the household for women and all the women available to the Sultan

Heliocentric theory

the idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun.

Hellenistic Age

Term for the era, usually dated 323-30 B.C.E., in which Greek culture spread across western Asia and northeastern Africa after the conquests of Alexander the Great.

Helsinki Accords

Political and human rights agreement signed in Helsinki, Finland in 1975 by the Soviet Union and western European countries.

Hieroglyphics

an ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds

Hijrah

Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina in A. D. 622; this event marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar

Holocaust

A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.

Imperialism

A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.

Import substitution industrialization

An economic system aimed at building a country's industry by restricting foreign trade. It was especially popular in Latin American countries such as Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil in the mid-twentieth century. (823)

Inca

This term aplies to the people of the Andean region.

Indentured servitude

the system of temporary servitude, where young men and women bound themselves to masters for fixed terms of servitude (four to five years), in exchange for passage to America, food and shelter. This method of labor was one of the largest elements of colonial population in America.

Indian National Congress

A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor.

Indo-Europeans

a group of seminomadic peoples who, about 1700 B.C., began to migrate from what is now southern Russia to the Indian subcontinent, Europe, and Southwest Asia

Indulgence

a pardon releasing a person from punishments due for a sin

Industrial Revolution

Change in technology, brought about by improvements in machinery and by use of steam power

International Monetary Fund

a United Nations agency to promote trade by increasing the exchange stability of the major currencies

International Space Station

A vehicle sponsored by sixteen nations that circles the earth while carrying out experiments

Investiture

the ceremony of installing a new monarch

Jacobins

Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.

Janissaries

Christian boys taken from families, converted to Islam, and then rigorously trained to serve the sultan

Jati

sub castes; were groups of people within each caste that worked together for one economic function

Jesuits

Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.

Jihad

Islamic holy war

Junks

Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula

Ka'aba

a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine

Kabuki theater

A form of Japanese theater developed in the seventeenth century that features colorful scenery and costumes and an exaggerated style of acting

Kamikaze

Japanese suicide pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and crashed them into American ships.

Karma

In Hindu belief, all the actions that affect a person's fate in the next life

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