Deviant, distressful and dysfunctional behavior patterns
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
A psychological disorder marked by the appearance of age 7 of one or more of three symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
Distractibility, forgetfulness, disorganization
Fidgeting, restlessness and not staying seated at school, excessive talking.
Difficulty taking turns, interrupting, blurting out answers while questions are being asked.
2. Individual genes
3. Brain structures and chemistry
2. Individual genes
3. Learned helplessness
4. Mood-related perceptions and memories.
Social cultural influences
3. Definition of normal and disorder.
The concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured. When applied to psychological disorders, the mdeical model assumes that these mental illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in psychiatric hospital.
Bio-psychological approach assumes that disordered behavior, like other behavior, arises from genetic predisposition and physiological states; inner psychological dynamics; and social cultural circumstances.
Cons of labeling psychological disorders
1. Labels can stigmatize a person by biasing others' interpretations and perceptions of past and present behaviors.
2. Affect the way people react to the labeled person.
Pros of labeling psychological disorders
1. Help mental health professionals communicate with one another about care and therapy.
2. Establish a common vocabulary for exchange of ideas among researchers working on causes and treatment of disorders.
Raise moral and ethical questions about how a society should treat people who have disorders and have committed rimes.
Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety for maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
General anxiety disorder
An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense; apprehensive, and in a state of automatic nervous system arousal.
1. 66% women
a. Continually tense and jittery.
b. Worried about various bad things that might happen.
c. Plagued by muscular tension: furrowed brows, twitching eyelids, trembling, perspiration.
An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minute-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, and other frightening sensations.
1. 1 out of 75 people.
2. Agoraphobia: the fear or avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult or help unavailable when panic strikes.
a. Avoid being outside the home, in a crowd, on a bus...etc.
An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessive) andor actions (compulsions).
1. concern with dirt, germs, or toxins.
2. something terrible happening.
3. symmetry, order, or exactness.
1. Excessive hand washing, bathing, tooth brushing or grooming.
2. Repeating rituals.
3. Checking doors, locks, appliances, or car break.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
An anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumping anxiety and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience.
i. Common in combat victims, accident and disaster survivors and sexual victims.
ii. Common in combat victims, accident, disaster survivors, and sexual assault victims.
iii. 10% of women, 20% men.
Fear of one thing due to traumatic event causes another fear that is similar to the first. Ex: (flying-> falling).
a. Observing what others fear, we learn to fear the same.
b. By observing someone receiving positive punishment will result in similar fears as if they felt it themselves.
a. Humans are biologically prepared to fear threats just as our ancestors were.
b. Many of our modern fears have evolutionary explanations. (Heights -> Flying).
Major depressive disorder
Signs of depression: lethargy, feeling of worthlessness, loss of interest in family, friends, and activities.
Down in the dumps mood that fills mot of the day,every day for two or more years.
A mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.
a. Symptoms: grandiose optimism and self esteem, reckless investments, spending sprees, and unsafe sex.
A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania.
Women are ________ as vulnerable to major depression compared to men.
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
1. Disorganized Thinking
2. Disturbed Perspectives
3. Inappropriate Emotions and Actions
Brain Abnormalities of Schizophrenia
1. Excess of receptors for dopamine.
2. Intensify brain signals, create positive symptoms such as hallucinations.
3. Impaired glutamate causes schizophrenia.
Abnormal Brain Activity and Anatomy
a. Low activity in the frontal lobe.
b. Decline in brain waves that reflect synchronized neural firing.
c. Vigorous activity during hallucinations.
d. Shrinking of the cerebral tissue.
e. Low birth weight and birth complications..
Warning Signs of Schizophrenia
a. Birth complications.
b. Separation from parents.
c. Poor attention span.
d. Poor coordination.
e. Withdrawn behavior.
f. Poor relations with peers.
Psychological disorder characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.
ex: Avoidant personality disorder, fearful sensitivity to rejection.
Expresses eccentric behavior.
ex: Emotionless disengagement.
Expresses dramatic or impulsive behaviors.
ex: going to great lengths to receive others praise.
Avoidant personality disorder
fearful sensitivity to rejection.
Schizoid personality disorder
Histrionic personality disorder
displays shallow, attention getting emotions and goes to great lengths to gain others praise. Cluster 3
Narcissistic personality disorder
Exaggerates their own importance, aided by success fantasies. Cluster 3
Borderline personality disorder
Unstable identity, unstable relationship, unstable and impulsive emotions. Cluster 3
Antisocial personality disorder
A personality disorder in which the person exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even towards friends and family members. May be aggressive, ruthless, or a clever con artist.
An emotionally charged confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties.
Prescribed medication or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system.
An approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy.
Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams and transference and the therapists interpretation of them released previous repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self insight.
Relax and say everything that comes to mind by focusing on thoughts and feelings.
The blocking from consciousness of anxiety laden material.
The analyst's noting supposed dream meanings resistances, and their significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight.
Aims to help people gain insight in to the roots of their difficulties, but works with current relationships and helping in the present rather than fixing the whole personality.
Client centered therapy
The therapist uses techniques such as active listening with a genuine, accepting, empathetic environment to facilitate client's growth.
Empathetic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies.
Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behavior.
Behavioral technique such as desensitization that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to things they fear or avoid.
A type of counter conditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety triggering stimuli (common for phobias)
Trains you to relax one muscle group after another.
Virtual reality exposure therapy
An anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to stimulation of their greatest fears.
Associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
Enforced desired behaviors and withhold reinforcements or punish undesired ones.
People earn a token of some sort of exhibiting a desired behavior and later exchange the tokens for various privileges and treats.
Therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting, based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions.
Stress inoculation training
People with depression learn to dispute their negative thoughts and restructure their thinking in stressful situations.
Therapy that treats the family as a system. Vies and individuals unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members, accepts to guide family members towards positive relationship and improved communication.
Most effective type of therapy for depression
Cognitive, interpersonal, and behavior.
Most effective type of therapy for anxiety
Cognitive, exposure, and self inoculation
Most effective type of therapy for bulimia
Most effective type of therapy for phobias
The study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior.
Dampen responsiveness to irrelevant stimuli. Effective to treat schizophrenia.
Depresses the central nervous system's activity.
Increases the availability of serotonin, which elevates arousal and mood.
A biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of the anesthized patient.
Surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior.
Psychosurgical procedures once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients.