TROPES!

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tropes and rhetorical devices

Alliteration

repetition of the same sound beginning several words in a sequence

Allusion

a reference to another work of literature, person, or event

Anaphora

repetition of a word or phrase as the beginning of successive clauses

Antistrophe

repetition of the same word or phrase at the end of successive clauses

Antithesis

opposition, or contrast of ideas or words in a balanced or parallel construction

Aphorism

a short pithy instructive saying

Aporia

expression of doubt (often feigned) by which a speaker appears uncertain as to what he should think, say, or do.

Apostrophe

a suddent urn from the general audience to address a specific group or person or personified abstraction absent or present

chiasmus

two corresponding pairs arranged not in parallels (a-b-a-b), but in inverted order (a-b-b-a)

climax

arrangement of clauses in ascending order of power

euphemism

an inoffensive expression that is substituted for one that is considered offensive

hyperbole

a figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion, make a point, or evoke humor

irony

incongruity between what might be expected and what actually occurs

litotes

understatement for rhetorical effect (especially when expressing an affirmative by negating its contrary)

metaphor

implied comparison achieved through a figurative use of words

metonymy

substituting the name of an attribute or feature for the name of the thing itself (as in 'they counted heads')

onomatopoeia

using words that imitate the sound they denote

oxymoron

conjoining contradictory terms (as in 'deafening silence')

paradox

a statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth.

parallelism

phrases or sentences of a similar construction/meaning placed side by side, balancing each other

paralipsis

drawing attention to something by claiming not to mention it

paraprosdokian

surprise or unexpected ending of a phrase or series.

personification

the act of attributing human characteristics to abstract ideas etc.

praeteritio

Pretended omission for rhetorical effect.

simile

comparison using like or as

synaesthesia

a sensation that normally occurs in one sense modality occurs when another modality is stimulated

synecdoche

substituting a more inclusive term for a less inclusive one or vice versa

tautology

repetition of an idea in a different word, phrase, or sentence

zuegma

two different words linked to a verb or an adjective which is strictly appropriate to only one of them

analogy

drawing a comparison in order to show a similarity in some respect

conceit

a fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects

epithet

any word or phrase applied to a person or thing to describe an actual or attributed quality

pun

play on words

satire

form of literature in which irony, sarcasm, and ridicule are employed to attack human vice and folly

straw man

a logical fallacy that involves the creation of an easily refutable position; misrepresenting, then attacking an opponent's position

syllogism

deductive reasoning in which a conclusion is derived from two premises

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