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Quakers

A visionary radical Protestant sect whose members believed in an Inner Light that brought them close to God, equality in religious and social life, pacifism, and defiance of authority when it denied their rights to practice their religion.

proprietor

The name given to any prominent Englishman to whom the king granted vast areas of land in colonial North America.

headright system

This was used in Virginia to encourage immigration by giving 50 acres of land to any settler who brought a servant.

John Rolfe

This Virgina settler married and experiments with growing tobacco in the colony.

Puritans

English Protestants who wished not only to rid the Church of England of its Catholic traditions, but also to reform English society; they came to New England to set up a model community as an example to the rest of Europe.

Roger Williams

In 1635 he was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony because he said that the government had no authority over the personal opinions of individuals. He founded Rhode Island as a colony for religious freedom.

William Penn

This Quaker viewed his colony as a "Holy Experiment."

Pilgrims

A radical separatist group of English Protestants who settled at Plymouth in order to be left alone to lead a pure and religious life.

indentured servant

Mostly young and single European immigrants who entered into work contracts for a specified period of years in exchange for free passage to America and sometimes a promise of land at the end of the contract.

John Smith

This adventurer instituted military discipline and perhaps saved the Virginia colony at Jamestown.

Half-way Covenant

An attempt by New England clergymen in 1662 to counteract declining church membership by allowing the children of church members to join even though they had not experienced salvation.

Increase Mather

This prominent New England clergyman helped bring the Salem witchcraft trials to a close.

antinomianism

An interpretation of Puritan doctrine associated with Anne Hutchinson that stressed mystical elements in God's grace and diverged from orthodox Puritan views on salvation.

Jonathan Edwards

This Puritan theologian was the leader of the first Great Awakening in New England.

Act of Toleration

This law allowed freedom of worship for all Christians in Maryland to keep the peace between Catholics and Protestants there.

John Winthrop

He led about 1000 Puritans to America in 1630 and was elected the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

Nathanial Bacon

He led a rebellion in Virginia against the autocratic government of Lord Berkeley in the late 17c.

James Oglethrope

A prominent humanitarian, he led a group of settlers and helped found the colony of Georgia in 1732.

John Peter Zenger

This New York newspaper editor made a written attack on the corrupt royal governor and was arrested on the basis of seditious libel. However, after a trial, he was found not guilty.

Jacob Leiser

He led an uprising in New York in the name of King William IV against the Anglo-Dutch ruling elite.

Navigation Act

This law passed in Parliament was specifically designed to regulate American trade.

1763 Treaty of Paris

This ended the French and Indian War and gave England all of the French territories in North America.

Salutary Neglect

This pre-1763 British policy overlooked colonial violations of Britain's trade laws and allowed the colonies to govern themselves.

Albany Plan of Union

In an attempt to bring the Iroquois into the Seven Years' War and deal with other military affairs, this proposal, drafted by Benjamin Franklin, presented the idea that colonial defense problems should be handled by a royally-appointed president-general and a federal council of delegates chosen by the colonies. It was rejected by the colonies and the Iroquois remained neutral during the war.

Power of the Purse

The ability of colonial legislatures in the 18c to initiate money bills, specifying the amount to be raised and its uses.

Stamp Act

The second of Grenville's revenue measures, it led to the Virginia Resolve and colonial congress.

Proclamation of 1763

This was a move by Britain to forbid American settlers from moving westward into Native American territories in the Ohio Valley.

Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer

This work, written by John Dickinson, protested against the Townshend Acts and questioned the right of Parliament to levy "external" duties to raise revenue in the colonies.

Coercive Acts

Lord North's attempt to punish Americans for the Boston "Tea Party"; it closed Boston Harbor.

Olive Branch Petition

A final attempt by moderates in the Continental Congress to prevent an all-out war with Britain.

Declaratory Act

This legislation was a defense of Parliament's sovereignty over the colonies; it was passed to compensate for the repeal of the Stamp Act.

Sons & Daughters of Liberty

This network of lawyers, merchants, tradesmen, and other townspeople organized colonial protests against British regulations.

Quebec Act

It recognized the religion freedom of Canada's largely Catholic population; the American colonists saw this as a British attempt to disregard the colonies' western land claims and surround them with Catholic allies of the British Crown.

Samuel Adams

This political agitator led the Boston Tea Party and attended the First Continental Congress as a delegate from Massachusetts.

Declaration of Rights and Grievances

This was adopted by the First Continental Congress and it promised obedience to the king, but denied Parliament the right to tax the colonies.

writ of assistance

A general search warrant used by the British customs officials to hunt for smuggled goods.

Resolution of Reconciliation

This document, proposed by Lord North, promised any colony that would provide for its own government and defense virtual immunity from taxation. This plan was rejected by the colonies.

Townshend Acts

A series of new duties enacted by Parliament on widely used colonial products, this legislation established the vice-admiralty courts to enforce British trade laws.

Annapolis Conference

This meeting was called by Alexander Hamilton and others to talk about the lowering of taxes and tariffs to increase trade between the states.

James Wilson

He thought up the idea of the Constitution's Executive Branch and the idea of the Electoral College electing the President.

James Madison

He drafted the plan to replace the Articles of Confederation with a new federal system.

Samuel Chase

This Federalist judge was impeached, but not convicted, because of seditious speech.

Rush-Bagot Treaty

This 1818 treaty further decreased the friction between the U. S. and Britain when this agreement peaceably adjusted their boundaries along the Great Lakes.

Corrupt Bargain

Henry Clay's alleged shifting of electoral votes in the House to John Quincy Adams in the 1824 election in exchange for his appointment as Secretary of State.

American System

Henry Clay's idea to raise a protective tariff whose revenues would provide funds for roads and canals that would link the nation.

Adams-Onis Treaty

The negotiated sale of Spain's territories in eastern and western Florida to the U. S. for $5 million.

Ghent Treaty

This Anglo-American agreement restored territories to their original status before the War of 1812.

Roger B. Taney

As President Jackson's Secretary of the Treasury, he withdrew federal funds from the Bank of the United States.

Charles River v. Warren Bridge

This Supreme Court decision supported the principle that government should support the right to the general happiness of all of its citizens and that this should take precedence over property rights.

Winfield Scott

This military hero of the Mexican War ran as the last candidate of the Whig Party.

Logrolling

Political bargaining or trading of favors.

Maysville Road Bill

This was vetoed by Andrew Jackson on the grounds of strict constructionist interpretation of the Constitution.

Dorothea Dix

A social reformer who brought about improvements in the treatment of inmates in insane asylums.

Lewis Tappan

He split with the American Anti-Slavery Society and organized the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society with no women on the executive board.

Sarah Grimke

This reformer from the South worked for the abolition of slavery and the struggle for equal rights for women.

perfectionism

The religious belief that sin and evil could be eradicated in American society as well as in the individual.

Brook Farm

This Massachusetts commune wanted to created a perfect union between intellect and manual labor. It failed because nobody really wanted to work.

Shakers

This group, known as the Universal Friends, was started by Mother Ann Lee and promoted celibacy as an answer to world suffering. They were also known for their simple crafts and furniture.

Horace Mann

This American educator and reformer revolutionized public school organization and teaching.

communitarianism

The creation of utopian communities in which members engaged in various forms of cooperation and sharing of property and responsibility for the well-being of all.

William Lloyd Garrison

A leading New England abolitionist, this editor of The Liberator advocated the separation from the South and the immediate emancipation of all black slaves.

transcendentalism

The belief of New England intellectuals that the truths found beyond sense experience in intuition and nature would bring people to self-knowledge and self-reliance and ultimately to the attempted reformation of themselves and society.

E.C. Stanton

This American crusader for abolitionism, temperance, educational reform, and women's rights organized the first women's rights convention with Lucretia Mott in 1848.

Hudson River School

This movement consisted of a group of artists with the same style of painting who became known for their luxurious landscapes.

Oneida Community

This utopian movement began in upstate New York. People lived a communal life and shared everything, even marriages, which shocked the local inhabitants.

William McGuffey

He wrote his famous reader that was used to teach 80% of Americans to read during the early 1800s.

New Harmony

Started by Robert Owen, this Indiana communes was run based on Utopian socialist ideals.

John C. Fremont

He led American settlers in California to revolt against the Mexican authorities there. He later became a presidential candidate in 1856.

Horace Greeley

This editor of the New York Tribune said: Go West, young man, Go West!

Wilmot Proviso

This proposal prohibited slavery in all the territories obtained from Mexico and forced Congress to confront the slavery issue in succeeding administrations.

Ostend Manifesto

A memorandum drawn up by American ministers in Europe urging the United States to acquire Cuba.

Brigham Young

This Mormon leader headed a mass migration of people across the Great Plains and settled in Utah along the Great Salt Lake.

John Slidell

He headed a diplomatic mission to Mexico in hopes of averting war in 1846.

Webster-Ashburton Treaty

This treaty defined the boundaries between Lake Superior and Canada and Maine and Canada.

Guadalupe-Hidalgo Treaty

This treaty ended the Mexican War and confirmed America's title to Texas.

Impending Crisis of the South

This document urged lower-class southern whites to resist planter dominance and abolish slavery in their own best interests.

Crittendon Compromise

A futile last-minute attempt to postpone the breakup of the Union by guaranteeing slavery in the South and simultaneously reinstating the Missouri Compromise line. Lincoln refused to accept these proposals.

Harriet Tubman

This abolitionist and escaped slave, nicknamed the "Black Moses", conducted hundreds of slaves to freedom through the Underground Railroad.

Frederick Douglass

A leading 19c African American abolitionist who escaped from slavery and founded and edited The North Star.

Freeport Doctrine

This statement offered by Stephen Douglas provided territories with a plan to prevent the immigration of slaveholders into the western territories.

Martin van Buren

A former president who ran as the first candidate of the Free Soil Party.

Wade-Davis Bill

50% of state residents had to take ironclad oath, pocket-vetoed by Lincoln in 1864

Thaddeus Stevens

He was the leader of the Radical Republicans who pushed for the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson.

Tenure of Office Act

The Congressional legislation designed to limit the authority of President Andrew Johnson by preventing him from firing any of his Cabinet officers.

ex Parte Miligan

This Supreme Court ruling in 1866 stated that wartime trials held by military tribunals where civil courts existed were unconstitutional.

Carpetbaggers

A derogatory term applied to Northerners who settled in the South after the Civil War.

Scalawags

A negative term used to describe Southern Unionists who supported Republican state governments during Reconstruction.

Edwin Stanton

Lincoln's Secretary of War who was outwardly disloyal to President Johnson and acted as a spy for the Radical Republicans in Congress. It was his dismissal that precipitated Johnson's impeachment hearing.

Sharecropping

The status of working a piece of land in return for a portion of the crops.

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