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Absolutism

Form of government where the monarch has total control. ex. Peter the Great in Russia or Louis XIV in France.

Anarchism

idea that NO government is better than any idea of government yet conceived.

Anti-Semitism

belief that Jewish people are inferior and worthy of discrimination.

Capitalism

An economic system based on a free market, open competition, profit motive and private ownership of the means of production (i.e. laissez-faire)

Deism

The idea that there is an all-powerful entity who created the universe, but just stepped back to watch it work. the clockmaker.

Enlightened Despotism

Absolute rule justified by the monarch's paternalistic outlook for the best interests of the citizens of his or her country. ex: Catherine the Great, Frederick the Great, and Joseph II of Austria.

Existentialism

20th cent. philosophy where each individual person is in charge of giving meaning to their own lives.

Fascism

A nationalist system where the state and big business partners eliminate worker rights and any resistance to governmental or corporate power. aka nationalism on steroids. Ex: Mussolini in Italy.

Humanism

Ideal of human possibilities that came from the revival of Greco- Roman literature or art, very influential on the Renaissance.

Imperialism

the doctrine that says a powerful country can control a weaker country militarily, economically, politically and spiritually. Ex: England in India or Belgium in Congo.

Liberalism

Originating in the 19th Century, based on the idea that political change can make a society better than before. It supported democracy, laissez-faire and the removal of the Corn Laws. Led to utilitarianism and the reform movement.

Marxism

Devised by Marx and Engeks. The state owns the means of production and citizens contribute what they can to society, while society gives each citizen what they need.

Mercantilism

based on the belief that a national economy has to be strong and self-sufficient. The country must be on the "favorable" balance of trade, where a country exports MORE than it imports. opposed by capitalists.

Nationalism

the idea that everyone with the same language, traditions, ideas, ideals, culture, heritage, etc. should have their own nation, and love that nation.hu7

Nihilism

idea that nothing exists but science. Supported by Russian intellectual elites like Turgenev.

Relativism

Truth is not absolute, but subjective. The basis for judgment depends on the events, people or circumstances surrounding a situation.

Social Darwinism

Darwin's ideas applied to social life. It aided nationalists and the imperialism of the time.

Totalitarianism

Idea that the government should control ALL aspects of the lives of the citizens. Ex: Stalin and Hitler.

Utilitarianism

Jeremy Bentham's ideas; "the greatest good for the greatest number". Led to running water in England (and eventually the world)

Zionism

Idea that the Jewish people should have their own national homeland in Israel.

Nationalism

an ideology that holds that a nation is the fundamental unit for human social life, and takes precedence over any other social and political principles.

Republicanism

the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty and rule by the people.

Socialism

political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control.

Communism

an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization, based upon common ownership of the means of production.

Conservatism

political philosophy that favors traditional values.

Mysticism

the belief that one can commune with God independent of the church.

Secularism

a system of political or social philosophy that rejects all forms of religious faith and worship.

Individualism

a social theory advocating the liberty, rights, or independent action of the individual.

Catholicism

the faith, system, and practice of the Catholic Church, esp. the Roman Catholic Church.

Lutheranism

teachings of Martin Luther emphasizing the cardinal doctrine of justification by faith alone

Anglicanism

the doctrines, principles, or system of the Anglican Church.

Anabaptism

belief in: the primacy of the Bible; baptism of believers not infants; complete separation of church and state

Calvinism

the doctrines and teachings of John Calvin or his followers, emphasizing predestination, the sovereignty of God, the supreme authority of the Scriptures, and the irresistibility of grace.

Colonialism

the control or governing influence of a nation over a dependent country, territory, or people.

Constitutionalism

the principles of constitutional government or adherence to them.

Skepticism

the disbelief in any claims of ultimate knowledge

Rationalism

the principle or habit of accepting reason as the supreme authority in matters of opinion, belief, or conduct.

Despotism

the rule of a despot; the exercise of absolute authority.

Bullionism

a system in which currency is directly convertible to gold or silver.

Classicism

a movement in literature and art during the 17th and 18th centuries in Europe that favored rationality and restraint and strict forms

Romanticism

a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization; "Romanticism valued imagination and emotion over rationality"

Realism

interest in or concern for the actual or real, as distinguished from the abstract, speculative, etc.

Impressionism

a style of painting developed in the last third of the 19th century, characterized chiefly by short brush strokes of bright colors in immediate juxtaposition to represent the effect of light on objects.

Manorialism

the organization of rural economy and society in medieval western and parts of central Europe, characterized by the vesting of legal and economic power in a lord supported economically from his own direct landholding and from the obligatory contributions.

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