About making models from current data.
In Early Einstein Cosmology, the cosmological Constant was:
-A factor which acted to counterbalance gravity exactly.
-Created by a belief in a large-scale static universe.
- Suggests additional dimensions.
Ask a question.
Do background research.
-Construct a hypothesis.
-Go back to this step is your hypothesis seems invalid.
Test with an experiment.
Collect & Record Data
Analyze results & Draw conclusions.
Is sometime not included in the formal steps of the scientific method.
The Celestial Field is:
An infinitely large transparent sphere centered on earth.
An element that has a differing number of neutrons.
A plasma 1:
Carries disassociated electrons and protons.
A plasma 2:
Contains atomic nuclei with lost electrons.
A plasma 3:
Can be produced by extreme heat.
A plasma 4:
Is found in the interiors of most stars.
An Astronomic Unit AU is:
-About 150 million kilometers.
-Generally not used outside of the solar system.
A Light Year LY:
-Is a fixed measure of distance.
The perceived position of an object as seen from different positions.
Based upon the relationships associated with triangles.
The tangent of an angel:
A ratio between the lengths of the opposite side divided by the adjacent side.
Stellar Parallax provides what info?:
The distance to relatively nearby stars.
1a supernovae have what in common with Cephids?
-Both have stellar origins.
-Both are standard candles.
Is defined by astronomers as the entire electromagnetic spectrum.
-Are sometimes described as light bubbles.
-Use an eyepiece to magnify the image produced.
X-ray telescopes are found?
In earth orbit.
What are true of the largest telescopes?
-They have ten meter diameter mirrors.
-Energy source from the sun.
-It rotates but at different speeds according to latitude.
-Is a star.
Accounts for over 99% of the mass of the solar system.
Planets in the inner solar system?:
-They are called terrestrial planets.
-Generally they are composed of silicates and/or metals.
-Their individual orbital speed decreases with distance from the sun.
The astroid belt:
-Largely concentrated between Jupiter and Saturn.
The outer planets 1:
Their order from the sun in jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune.
Outer Planets 2:
All have more than 10 moons.
Outer planets 3:
Uranus has the slowest orbital speed around the sun.
Outer planets 4:
All are gas planets and all have gas rings.
-Extends about 50 astronomical units from the sun.
Formation of the sun 1:
It resulted from the collapse of a huge molecular cloud under gravitational influences.
Formation of the sun 2:
It formed from a giant spinning nebular disk.
Formation of the sun 3:
The inverse square law played a significant role.
-Is yet only hypothetical.
-Said to be the boundary of the Sun's gravitational influence.
Is now a dwarf planet.
Regarding Solar System planets:
-They are formed as the Sun's influence decreased under gravitational laws.
-They may have been more planet-like bodies in the early Solar System.
Some early planets and proto-planets probably:
-Underwent relatively frequent collisions.
-Were in unstable orbits which didn't last.
-That matter, the Earth included, warps the space around it giving rise to the gravitational effect.
are black because the escape velocity from them is greater than the speed of light.
Has gravitational effects.
Dark matter 2?
-It may account for more than 20% of mass/energy in the universe.
Current models of dark matter:
are, as yet, largely hypothetical.
Dark matter? 3:
Does not repel most, normal visible matter.
Current models of it are, as of yet, largely hypothetical.
Dark energy and dark matter are two different things.
Dark Energy 2:
may contribute over 70% of energy in the universe.
The Geocentric Model:
was espoused by the Roman Ptolemy.
Sir Isaac Newton
Developed a gravitational model requiring two masses.
It can be used to gauge recessional speed of stars.
Dark Energy 3:
Astronomers believe that it could eventually collapse the universe.
String Theory 2:
Fundamental particles are made of vibrating strings.
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle:
Places limit upon the accuracy with which certain pairs of physical properties can be simultaneously known.
may take only certain discrete, distinct measurable values.
Quantum mechanical principles:
Describe how atoms and photons interact.
The sun would not shine if:
the application of quantum mechanical principles did not exist.
Speed in a given direction.
The amount of matter contained in an object or particle.
The force an object exerts due to a gravitational field.
Resistance to change of motion or condition of rest.
The velocity required to escape from a gravitational field.
The gravitationally curved path of an object moving around a point in space.
An object below its escape velocity will:
If it has no transverse motion relative to a gravitating body then it will move toward the gravitating body.
Keplers first law:
The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of two foci.
Keplers second law:
A line joining a planet and the sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time.
Keplers third law:
The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit.
Evidence of there being multiple galaxies in the universe?
Images of colliding galaxies.
The hubble ultra-deep field is:
The image of a tiny portion of the celestial sphere containing an estimated 10,000 extremely distant galaxies.
One current model for galaxy formation is:
Large scale structures seen today were created by growth of minute primordial fluctuations in the energy field generated early in the BIG BANG!
First galaxies grew as a result of:
Mutual gravitational attraction of relatively nearby stars.
Provided early data supporting the model of an expanding universe.
Standard model of particle physics:
Is a model concerning the known subatomic particles and their interactions.
-Subatomic particles that make up protons and neutrons.
-Determine the electric charge of protons and neutrons.
are one of several types of leptons.
Are thought to be carriers of fundamental forces.
The Large Hardon Collider:
An accelerator for studying for subatomic research.
Subatomic particles are important in astronomy because:
They determine the nature of matter and forces in the universe.