many Eastern Europeans unhappy with communist led government
What prompted the revolutions in Eastern Europe?
Eastern Europe now without military threat from Soviet Union (leader Gorbachev)
Why do Eastern Europeans feel free to demand change?
organized solidarity trade union with support of Catholic Church rose to power; won 1993 Nobel Prize for efforts
free-market reforms, unemployment, inflation, and crime
In 1990, Walesa became President; what challenges did he face? (4)
Kwasniewski instituted several reforms
At the end of 1995 who defeated Walesa? What did he do with his position?
the Czech Republic and Slovakia is created by peace settlement
When ethnic conflicts create a division for Czevhoslovakia, What is created and by what? (2)
Ceausescu's __________ _________increased resistance in Romania as his policies became increasingly harsh and violent
Ceausescu; after this he lost support of his army
1989 who order the murder of thousands of peaceful demonstrators; how did this decision affect him?
Erich Honecker's harsh regime
What was the main cause for increased opposition in East Germany?
many fled the country and mass demonstrations broke out in 1989
What happen in East Germany in 1989?
the restrictions on travel between East and West Germany ended and the Berlin Wall was torn down
What happened on Nov. 9th 1989?
remained communist until 1990s and eventually collapsed due to reforms; independence movement broke out
Slovenia and Croatia
When negotiations failed with Slobodan, what two countries became independent by June 1991?
What was growing increasingly powerful and increasingly took control of Yugoslavian army and Croatian land
many Bosnians were _________ and face ___________ __________ from the Serbians; 100s of thousands were killed and a million displaced
Serbia performed ethnic cleansing against Albanians
What did Serbia do in order to suppress the revolts of the Albanians?
faced charges by the International Court; 2003 he was indicted on charges of killing opposition people such as Stambolic (ex-Pres.)and Draskovic (opposition leader)--supporters suspected of Djindic's (PM) death; Milosevic found dead in his cell in 2006
US and NATO intervened and despite Milosevic's protests and Albanians in Kosovo regained autonomy in 1999
What two groups intervened with the ethnic cleansing issue?
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Purpose: a political and military alliance that promotes democratic values and peace around the world; will use military means if necessary
It includes 28 members from North America and Europe
United Nations has 193 member nations, primarily acts as human rights watch group and peacekeeping force; much longer to take action due to consensus needed by 193 member nation
What does the United Nation primarily do and how many member nation does it have?
groups to raise awareness for women's issues; stereotyping, social and economic equality; Equal Pay Act
women increasingly entered the workforce and universities
How did women's lives change during and after the 1970s?
Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act
Equal Pay Act still didn't ensure equal pay until what was signed by Obama in 2009?
antinuclear movement, women's studies, environmentalists
What broad issues arose during the 80s and 90s?
some advocated return to traditional values or to redefine "feminism" as struggle to balance career and family
Why would the 1990s be considered somewhat of a backlash?
groups that use violent tactics to achieve their goals; such as killings, taking hostages, hijacking planes
Irish Republican Army (IRA)
goal is to unite Northern Ireland with the Irish Republic; used tactics such as bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, extortion, etc. and caused deaths of thousands
encouragement by one country to inflict harm on another; Iraq, Syria, North Korea
Sept. 11, 2001
Al-Qaeda operatives hijacked planes; pans masterminded by Osama bin Laden and Khalid Sheikh Mohammed
US and NATO troops had removed ________ from power in Afghanistan due to their refusal to relinquish and cease cooperation with Osama bin Laden
when Iraq did not cooperate to US liking the war was launched on Iraq in ____________ ____________.
by Dec. 2003 ____________ ____________ captured; despite his execution in Dec. 2006 turmoil and unrest continues today
influence of American culture through movies, television (MTV), music (jazz, blues, rock, and rap) (Elvis and Chuck Berry influence on Beatles), and material goods
drawn criticism from countries around the world for "Americanizing" cultures
sports along with television showing of the sports
What became a worldwide phenomenon in the 20th century?
1972 Munich Games witnessed the murder of 11 Israeli athletes by a Palestinian terrorist group; US boycotted 1980 Moscow Olympics and Soviets boycotted '84 Olympic in Los Angeles
How did television/sports become voice of terrorism?
a policy of killing or forcibly removing an ethnic group from its lands; used by the Serbs against the Muslim minority in Bosnia
an artistic movement that emerged in the early 1960s; pop artists took imaged from popular culture and transformed them into works of fine art