Final Exam Quiz Questions

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Quiz questions from chapters: 1, 2, 3, 4, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33

Lymphatic tissue closely associated with the bloodstream as well as lymphatic circulation is found in the:
a) tonsils.
b) thymus.
c) spleen.
d) intestine.
e) bone marrow.

c

Antibodies are produced by plasma cells and regulatory T cells.
True
False

true

Cells that help initiate the adaptive immune response by placing microbial antigens on their surfaces are generally referred to as:
a) helper T cells.
b) regulatory T cells.
c) B cells.
d) mast cells.
e) antigen-presenting cells.

e

Signaling proteins that alert the immune system an infection is present and that sometimes directly fight pathogens are the:
a) complement proteins.
b) antihistamines.
c) antibodies.
d) cytokines.
e) histamines.

d

Which of the following would best be defined in part as an immune system overreaction?
a) chronic disease
b) cell-mediated response
c) autoimmune disease
d) cytotoxic T cell action
e) allergies

e

Infected body cells can self-identify for destruction by the immune system by:
a) releasing histamine.
b) placing fragments of the infectious agent on their surfaces.
c) reshaping their membranes into a pattern that B cells recognize.
d) becoming dendritic cells.
e) secreting hormones that stimulate macrophages.

b

B cells are the main cells of the cell-mediated pathway.
True
False

false

Therapy involving Toll-Like Receptors may be useful in treating some autoimmune disorders and cancers.
True
False

true

Macrophages and dendritic cells can both be antigen presenting cells.
True
False

true

Any substance that can cause an immune response is a/an:
a) antibody.
b) nonspecific defense.
c) interferon.
d) antigen.
e) microbe.

d

Stomach acid is one of our natural defenses against bacteria in food.
True
False

true

CD4 and CD8 T cells are likely to become active when they:
a) travel through the spleen.
b) are attracted by the inflammatory response.
c) travel through lymph nodes.
d) interact with B-cells.
e) dock with a dendritic cell with a matching antigen.

e

Smallpox vaccines used today are heat-killed cowpox viruses.
True
False

false

What is the explanation for why B cells come in so many different types that can produce so many different antibodies?
a) B cells have gene fragments that can shuffle or recombine.
b) B cells can recombine their genes with T cells.
c) The genome of B cells is much larger than other body cells.
d) B cells can regulate shape to match the antigen.
e) B cells can recombine their genes with the pathogen.

a

Which of the following best describes the role of regulatory T cells?
a) Regulatory T cells stabilize and support memory cells.
b) Regulatory T cells are a kind of helper T cell that stimulates cytotoxic T cells.
c) Regulatory T cells help limit the immune system response.
d) Regulatory T cells are a kind of helper T cell that stimulates B cells.
e) Regulatory T cells stimulate natural killer cells to attack tumors.

c

Which statement about the B cells' abilities to produce antibodies is most accurate?
a) B cells wait to encounter an antigen and then copy it.
b) There may be 100 million different B-cells, each producing a different antibody.
c) Most B cells are capable of producing any kind of antibody.
d) There are no B cells until an antigen is encountered.
e) B cells don't produce antibodies until they develop in the thymus.

b

Why does producing a large "clone" of activated T cells also provide long-term immunity?
a) Leftover antibodies last a long time.
b) More cells are produced than necessary.
c) Some of the T cells become memory cells.
d) Some of the T cells can become B cells.
e) The cloned cells are stronger than the original cells.

c

The lymphocyte group that includes both CD4 receptor "helper" and CD8 receptor "killer" cells would be the:
a) macrophages.
b) dendritic cells.
c) mast cells.
d) B-cells.
e) T-cells.

e

A plasma cell is a cell that has differentiated from a:
a) B cell.
b) mast cell.
c) dendritic cell.
d) T cell.

a

Attaching an antibody to an antigen so that the antigen cannot attach to anything else is referred to as:
a) antigen presentation.
b) agglutination.
c) neutralization.
d) coagulation.

c

The natural killer (NK) cell specializes in attacking bacteria.
True
False

false

Antibodies may help phagocytes grab and ingest bacteria.
True
False

true

Which part of the innate response can sometimes kill bacteria outright but mainly speeds up metabolism, improving the immune response?
a) fever
b) histamine
c) macrophage attack
d) protective immunity
e) fibrin

a

Helper T cells:
1. facilitate adaptive response
2. are B cells that make antibodies
3. limit the immune response
4. directly kill cells
5. are antigen-presenting cells

1

Regulatory T cells:
1. facilitate adaptive response
2. are B cells that make antibodies
3. limit the immune response
4. directly kill cells
5. are antigen-presenting cells

3

Cytotoxic T cells:
1. facilitate adaptive response
2. are B cells that make antibodies
3. limit the immune response
4. directly kill cells
5. are antigen-presenting cells

4

Dendritic cells:
1. facilitate adaptive response
2. are B cells that make antibodies
3. limit the immune response
4. directly kill cells
5. are antigen-presenting cells

5

Plasma cells:
1. facilitate adaptive response
2. are B cells that make antibodies
3. limit the immune response
4. directly kill cells
5. are antigen-presenting cells

2

Lymph "glands" (nodes) swelling is a sign that an infection is present.
True
False

true

The response that targets specific (and only specific) pathogens is the:
a) adaptive immune response.
b) barrier to infection.
c) innate response.
d) phagocytosis response.
e) inflammatory response.

a

Lymphocytes and other white blood cells are produced in the:
a) lymph nodes.
b) bone marrow.
c) heart.
d) thymus gland.

b

There are different Toll-Like Receptors for bacteria and viruses.
True
False

true

Complement proteins are antibodies produced by skin cells.
True
False

false

AIDS is an autoimmune disease.
True
False

false

What do many of the different kinds of allergies have in common?
a) They result in high blood pressure.
b) All allergens are living things.
c) They cause histamine release.
d) They contribute to autoimmune disorders.

c

Which part of the immune system does not target specific microbial invaders?
a) antigens
b) specific defense
c) innate response
d) antibodies

c

An antigen is any foreign substance that elicits an immune response.
True
False

true

Histamine causes which of the following?
a) TLR production
b) complement protein production
c) increased permeability and dilation of blood vessels
d) the anti-inflammatory response
e) antibody production

c

Which of the following cells release histamine?
a) lymphocytes
b) dendritic cells
c) eosinophils
d) mast cells

d

Phagocytes can ingest pathogens, cells, and cell parts in the body.
True
False

true

Which of the following best describes the place adaptive immunity occupies in the animal kingdom?
a) All animals except sponges have adaptive immunity.
b) Only vertebrates, echinoderms, and mollusks have adaptive immunity.
c) Only mammals have adaptive immunity.
d) Only vertebrates have adaptive immunity.
e) Only humans have adaptive immunity.

d

Once you have had a primary exposure to a specific antigen and encounter this antigen again, you will mount a rapid immune response due to:
a) cytotoxic T cells.
b) antibodies.
c) memory cells.
d) antigen-presenting cells.

c

Lymphocytes that become part of cell-mediated immunity arm of the adaptive immune response develop in the:
a) spleen.
b) intestine.
c) bone marrow.
d) lymph nodes.
e) thymus.

e

Why may a transplanted organ be rejected by the immune system?
a) The organ contains different T cells.
b) The organ contains different B cells.
c) The immune system produces a severe allergic response.
d) The organ has non-self surface recognition molecules.
e) The organ contains different blood antigens.

d

The virus HIV, which causes AIDS, infects:
a) T cells.
b) mast cells.
c) B cells.
d) phagocytes.

a

Which cells in the immune system produce memory cells?
a) lymphocytes
b) eosinophils
c) mast cells
d) dendritic cells

a

The skin serves as which type of defense against pathogens?
a) innate response
b) adaptive immunity
c) complement
d) protective immunity
e) barrier to infection

e

Which of the following is an autoimmune disease that affects women in far greater numbers than men?
a) lupus
b) type 1 diabetes
c) AIDS
d) allergies

a

Which of the following is not true of antibodies?
a) T cells produce antibodies.
b) Antibodies are secreted by plasma cells.
c) Vaccines can stimulate production of antibodies.
d) There are many different kinds of antibodies.
e) Antibodies bind to antigens.

a

Helpful bacteria that produce lactic acid would be a defense found in which part of the body?
a) skin
b) female reproductive tract
c) respiratory tract
d) urinary tract
e) stomach

a

Dendritic cells are the histamine-producing cells of the immune system.
True
False

false

Immune therapy research with potential to work in alleviating both organ rejection and autoimmune disease involves:
a) regulatory T cells.
b) cytotoxic T cell action.
c) vaccines.
d) antibodies.

a

Which of the following would be best categorized as a phagocyte?
a) dendritic cell
b) mast cell
c) eosinophil
d) lymphocyte

c

B cell receptors are specific to only one antigen.
True
False

true

Cells in the body that have been infected by a virus or bacteria are specifically killed by:
a) dendritic cells.
b) mast cells.
c) regulatory T cells.
d) cytotoxic T cells.
e) cytotoxic B cells.

d

What does it mean when we say a vaccine is based on an "attenuated" virus?
a) The vaccine is a live virus that has been heat-killed.
b) The vaccine is a live virus that has been chemically damaged.
c) The vaccine isn't the virus at all, just similar-shaped chemicals.
d) The vaccine is based on a virus that has been rendered harmless by lab-induced mutation.
e) The vaccine is a similar species to the virus that isn't harmful (e.g., cowpox for smallpox).

d

Cytokines are molecules that cut holes in bacterial membranes.
True
False

false

Clumping of antibodies and antigens is referred to as:
a) neutralization.
b) agglutination.
c) antigen presentation.
d) coagulation.

b

Lymphocytes that become part of antibody-mediated immunity arm of the adaptive immune response develop in the:
a) spleen.
b) intestine.
c) thymus.
d) bone marrow.
e) lymph nodes.

d

Which part of the innate response cuts holes in the cell membranes of pathogens?
a) histamines
b) complement proteins
c) fibrin
d) antibodies
e) cytokines

b

Place the following in proper sequence regarding activation of the cell-mediated response: (1) dendritic cell migrates to lymph node, (2) T cells divide rapidly, (3) dendritic cell ingests pathogen, (4) CD4 and CD8 cells dock with dendritic cell, (5) dendritic cell presents antigen on its surface.
a) 5, 3, 1, 2, 4
b) 3, 5, 1, 4, 2
c) 4, 3, 1, 5, 2
d) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
e) 3, 1, 5, 2, 4

b

The lymphocyte group that includes antibody-producing cells would be the:
a) T-cells.
b) mast cells.
c) B-cells.
d) dendritic cells.
e) macrophages.

c

T cells develop in the thalamus.
True
False

false

AIDS has become a more manageable illness in developed countries in recent years due to:
a) general resistance in the human population.
b) declining disease rates in most areas of the world.
c) vaccines.
d) medications that keep HIV from copying itself.
e) changes in the viral genome.

d

T cells are a type of lymphocyte.
True
False

true

In which type of response are Toll-Like Receptors (TLR's) important to pathogens?
a) complement response
b) barrier to infection
c) adaptive immunity
d) innate response
e) protective immunity

d

We use the scientific method every day. Imagine your car doesn't start one morning before school. Which of these is a reasonable hypothesis regarding the problem?
a) Add a quart of oil.
b) I'm going to be late.
c) I'm out of gas.
d) Check to see whether your lights were left on all night.

c

The questions that can be answered by science are:
a) without limit.
b) limited by what is found in the living world.
c) limited by religious doctrine.
d) limited only be imagination.
e) limited by what can be investigated using the scientific method.

e

Tissues are grouped together in functional units called:
a) organelles.
b) organs.
c) cells.
d) organisms.

b

It doesn't matter whether a hypothesis is correct or not when it is first stated.
True
False

true

A good hypothesis must:
a) lead to a question.
b) be falsifiable.
c) be false.
d) be theoretical.
e) be true.

b

The physicist Freeman Dyson made which of the following predictions?
a) Within 50 years, the human species would become extinct.
b) Within 50 years, the energy crisis would be solved.
c) Within 50 years, global warming would make the Earth unlivable.
d) Within 50 years, gardeners would be able to design their own roses and orchids.

d

Which of the following is the most complex level of organization?
a) a water molecule
b) a rainforest
c) the circulatory system
d) a heart

b

The difference between a theory and a hypothesis is that:
a) a theory must be proven beyond a shadow of a doubt.
b) a hypothesis must be supported by evidence.
c) a hypothesis must be proven beyond a shadow of a doubt.
d) a theory must be supported by evidence.

d

Which of the following could be considered a scientific principle?
a) The height of Americans has been steadily increasing over the past 30 years.
b) Leaves bend toward the light because they sense light is needed to grow.
c) Radioactive isotopes can be used as tracers in medicine because radioactive isotopes behave the same as other isotopes.
d) Biology is a more exact science than chemistry.

c

Which scientist proved that the theory of spontaneous generation is untrue?
a) Watson
b) Einstein
c) Pasteur
d) Crick
e) Pauling

c

The study of the physical functioning of plants and animals is called ________.

physiology

A unifying principle of biology states that there is a gradual modification of populations of living things over time that sometimes results in new species. This principle is called ________.

evolution

Observation of a natural event by more than one human or scientific instrument is the basis of the scientific method.
True
False

true

Choose the answer that best describes the sequence of the scientific method.
a) guess, hypothesis, experiment, conclusion
b) hypothesis, experiment, observation, conclusion
c) observation, hypothesis, experiment, absolute fact
d) experiment, observation, hypothesis, conclusion
e) observation, hypothesis, experiment, conclusion

e

How living organisms relate to each other and to their physical environment
1. the functioning of plants and animals
2. molecular biology
3. ecology

3

Physiology
1. the functioning of plants and animals
2. molecular biology
3. ecology

1

Studying how molecules affect living beings
1. the functioning of plants and animals
2. molecular biology
3. ecology

2

Which of the following is true?
a) A scientific fact and a scientific theory carry the same weight in the scientific community.
b) A scientific theory is a hunch about a natural event.
c) A scientific theory is the final answer to a question about a natural event.
d) A scientific theory explains what we know to this date about a natural event.

d

Organelles are:
a) compartments within cells.
b) cells.
c) organisms.
d) a group of cells that serve a common function.
e) proteins.

a

The development of the physical sciences differed from development of biological sciences in that:
a) physical sciences offer the potential to find underlying principles, but such a goal is virtually impossible in biological sciences.
b) physical sciences aimed to find underlying principles after this approach was taken in biological sciences.
c) physical sciences aimed to find underlying principles before this approach was taken in biological sciences.
d) physical sciences developed much more slowly than biological sciences.
e) physical sciences developed more slowly than biological sciences because physical sciences are more difficult than biological science.

c

Which one of the following is true about scientific knowledge?
a) Scientific knowledge is acquired though teachings passed on by great scientists.
b) Scientific knowledge is derived from careful thinking about the way things must work based on application of a few fundamental principles.
c) When based on many experiments, scientific knowledge is absolutely true.
d) Scientific knowledge is derived from the strongest arguments made by the brightest scientists.
e) Scientific knowledge is not absolute, because the possibility is always held open that new experiments may one day prove it wrong.

e

Which of the following is evidence that global warming is occurring?
a) The intensity of hurricanes has been decreasing in recent years.
b) The intensity of hurricanes has been increasing in recent years.
c) The number of hurricanes has been increasing in recent years.
d) The number of hurricanes has been decreasing in recent years.

b

The scientist who demonstrated that the Earth moves around the sun was ________.

Copernicus

The students in a classroom could be considered which of the following?
a) a population
b) an organism
c) a niche
d) a community
e) a biosphere

a

When Pasteur tested the hypothesis of spontaneous generation, he compared the ability of a sterilized growth medium (meat broth) to produce a population of bacteria in two different types of flasks. One had a simple neck open to the outside, and the other had a "goose neck" bend that also was open to the environment. Pasteur expected that bacteria would appear in the flask with the standard neck. In this experiment, the standard neck flask served as:
a) a variable.
b) an observation.
c) a statistic.
d) a control.
e) a hypothesis.

d

Living things inherit information from their parents encoded in:
a) DNA.
b) proteins.
c) molecules.
d) atoms.

a

Scientific observations:
a) are limited to available equipment used to record a natural phenomenon.
b) can be made directly by humans.
c) can be made by instrumentation.
d) all of the above

d

Which of the following is an example of statistics that were used to demonstrate that smoking causes lung cancer?
a) A mathematical analysis of a large number of people with lung cancer demonstrated that far more people who smoked developed lung cancer.
b) A woman who smoked developed lung cancer.
c) A doctor notices that most of her lung cancer patients smoked.

a

Which of the following is an example of homeostasis? An organism that can:
a) evolve from other living things.
b) reproduce.
c) respond to the environment.
d) maintain a relatively constant internal environment.
e) assimilate and use energy.

d

Which of the following is an example of how living things assimilate energy?
a) solving a mathematics problem
b) producing a new generation of children
c) eating a meal
d) blinking at a bright light

c

Which animals have had human genes inserted into their makeup to produce milk with human proteins?
a) camels
b) cattle
c) goats
d) horses

c

Which of the following is true of smoking?
a) Lung cancer rates have been shown to rise and fall with smoking rates.
b) Scientists knew in 1940 that smoking causes lung cancer.
c) Before smoking became popular in the 1920s, lung cancer was common.

a

A theory must be supported by evidence.
True
False

true

If a sperm carrying a Y chromosome fertilizes a mother's egg, which of the following will be true?
a) A sperm can't carry a Y chromosome; only the egg can.
b) A baby boy will develop.
c) A baby girl will develop.
d) Nothing will happen.

b

A scientific explanation that is tentative and that requires more investigation is termed a/an:
a) theory.
b) fact.
c) control.
d) observation.
e) hypothesis.

e

All of the kinds of living things in a given area are called a ________.

community

The experiments of Louis Pasteur to disprove spontaneous generation illustrate the process of the scientific method.
True
False

true

If a sperm carrying an X chromosome fertilizes a mother's egg, which of the following will be true?
a) A sperm can't carry an X chromosome; only the egg can.
b) Nothing will happen.
c) A baby boy will develop.
d) A baby girl will develop.

d

Currently there is a controversy over whether which of the following organisms is a direct descendant of the dinosaurs?
a) frogs
b) birds
c) lizards
d) snakes
e) crocodiles

b

Imagine you're a biology instructor lecturing to a group of students interested in ecology, the branch of biology that studies interactions between organisms and their environments. They complain bitterly that they're not interested in atoms and molecules because these are irrelevant to their interests. As a responsible instructor aiming to provide a complete and meaningful education, you would state:
a) "You need to study atoms and molecules because all biologists, regardless of their specific interests, should know about them."
b) "You need to study atoms and molecules because it's in the book."
c) "You need to study atoms and molecules because the organization of life is hierarchical; this implies that to understand the complex (ecology), you first need to understand the simpler underlying levels."
d) "Ok, have it your way."
e) "You to need to study atoms and molecules because they're important for many things."

c

Genetically altered salmon are grown to eating weight in half the normal time.
True
False

true

If you flip the light switch in your living room and nothing happens, what might be a good hypothesis to explain the absence of light?
a) You might have made too many telephone calls this month, thereby reducing the amount of electricity in your lines.
b) The air conditioner is also running upstairs, and it might be using all of the electricity available in your house at the moment.
c) The circuit breaker for the living room might be the "off" position.
d) Electricity sometimes flows backward in a wire, preventing the light from shining.

c

A hypothesis must be supported by evidence.
True
False

false

Tissues are:
a) cells.
b) compartments within cells.
c) organisms.
d) proteins
e) a group of cells that serve a common function.

e

Which of the following is the correct order of complexity, going from least to most complex?
a) organ, tissue, cell, organelle, atom, molecule
b) molecule, atom, organ, tissue, cell, organelle
c) organ, tissue, cell, organelle, molecule atom
d) atom, molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ
e) atom, molecule, organelle, cell, organ, tissue

d

Which of the following is a theory?
a) There is molecular and biochemical evidence that all organisms are related.
b) Many people claim that the Earth is only 6,000 years old.
c) Many people believe echinacea cures their colds.
d) A boy finds a chipped rock he believes is an arrowhead.

a

Isotopes have been used to:
a) determine the age of fossils.
b) detect bone cancer.
c) create new elements.
d) A and B
e) A, B, and C

d

The mass of matter is proportional to the:
a) density of matter.
b) weight of matter.
c) volume of matter.
d) number of electrons.
e) number of protons.

b

If an atom has an atomic number of 11, which of the electron shells are filled?
a) the first shell
b) the first, second, third, and fourth shell
c) the first, second, and third shell
d) the first and second shell

d

When you put sugar into your morning coffee or tea, the sugar is the ________, and the tea or coffee is the ________.
a) solution, solute
b) solute, solvent
c) solvent, solution
d) solute, solution
e) solvent, solute

b

Cigarette smoking and exposure to sunlight ________ the production of free radicals by our bodies.

increase

You have a substance and begin a set of experiments in which you break it down into other substances through chemical reactions. After a few successive reactions, you discover a set of products that can't be broken down further, no matter what type of chemical reaction you attempt. These substances are:
a) electrons.
b) elements.
c) protons.
d) isotopes.
e) neutrons.

b

Acids release hydrogen ions into aqueous solutions.
True
False

true

If the atomic number is 18, then:
a) the outermost energy level is full.
b) this atom would be considered reactive.
c) there are seven electrons in the outermost shell.
d) the atom has 18 electrons in the nucleus.

a

An atom whose atomic number is 10 has how many electrons in its outermost energy level?
a) two
b) five
c) ten
d) three
e) eight

e

Hydrogen bonds may form between oxygen of one water molecule and ________ of another water molecule.

hydrogen

Which of the following is not a compound?
a) methane
b) a protein
c) nitrogen
d) glucose
e) table salt

c

Nonpolar molecules develop when:
a) one atom is much more electronegative than the other.
b) electrons transfer from one atom to another.
c) both atoms have similar electronegativity.
d) shared electrons are not shared equally.

b

Potassium has one electron in its fourth shell, and chloride has seven electrons in its third shell. Which of the following is most likely to be true?
a) The two atoms will share the electron unequally in a polar bond.
b) The two atoms will share an electron equally in a covalent nonpolar bond.
c) Potassium will give an electron to chloride to form an ionic bond.
d) Chloride will give an electron to potassium to form an ionic bond.

c

Anything that occupies space is energy.
True
False

false

Atoms are electrically neutral.
True
False

true

proton:
1. positive charge
2. no charge
3. negative charge
4. ionic bond
5. polar covalent bond
6. hydrogen bond
7. nonpolar covalent bond
8. electron-proton interaction

1

Keeps most electrons from escaping the nucleus of an atom
1. positive charge
2. no charge
3. negative charge
4. ionic bond
5. polar covalent bond
6. hydrogen bond
7. nonpolar covalent bond
8. electron-proton interaction

8

Explains the attraction of water molecules for each other
1. positive charge
2. no charge
3. negative charge
4. ionic bond
5. polar covalent bond
6. hydrogen bond
7. nonpolar covalent bond
8. electron-proton interaction

6

Would be the least affected by the presence of water
1. positive charge
2. no charge
3. negative charge
4. ionic bond
5. polar covalent bond
6. hydrogen bond
7. nonpolar covalent bond
8. electron-proton interaction

7

neutrons
1. positive charge
2. no charge
3. negative charge
4. ionic bond
5. polar covalent bond
6. hydrogen bond
7. nonpolar covalent bond
8. electron-proton interaction

2

electrons
1. positive charge
2. no charge
3. negative charge
4. ionic bond
5. polar covalent bond
6. hydrogen bond
7. nonpolar covalent bond
8. electron-proton interaction

3

Results from an unequal sharing of shared electrons
1. positive charge
2. no charge
3. negative charge
4. ionic bond
5. polar covalent bond
6. hydrogen bond
7. nonpolar covalent bond
8. electron-proton interaction

5

Results from electrons being transferred between atoms
1. positive charge
2. no charge
3. negative charge
4. ionic bond
5. polar covalent bond
6. hydrogen bond
7. nonpolar covalent bond
8. electron-proton interaction

4

Sodium chloride (NaCl) crystals (table salt) form as a result of:
a) chemical unreactivity.
b) the attraction of oppositely charged particles for each other.
c) covalent bonding.
d) the lack of chemical attraction.

b

Nitrogen has seven protons, and hydrogen has one proton. Based on your knowledge of the rules of covalent bonding, which of the following molecules will form from the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen?
a) NH3
b) NH
c) NH4
d) NH2
e) NH5

a

Two hydrogen atoms (atomic number 1) form a covalent bond. Which of the following is true?
a) Both hydrogen atoms now have two protons in their outer shell.
b) Both hydrogen atoms now have two electrons in their outer shell.
c) One hydrogen atom now has zero protons in its outer shell, and the other has two.
d) Each hydrogen atom still has one electron in its outer shell.
e) One hydrogen atom now has zero electrons in its outer shell, and the other has two.

b

The component of an atom or molecule that is most important in determining its chemical bonding properties is the:
a) nucleus.
b) electron.
c) proton.
d) neutron.
e) isotope.

b

Atoms form bonds to:
a) fill their outer shells with electrons.
b) obtain an equal number or protons and electrons.
c) fill their outer shells with neutrons.
d) obtain an equal number of protons and neutrons.
e) fill their outer shells with protons.

a

Which type of bonding occurs between molecules and not within molecules?
a) hydrogen
b) polar covalent
c) covalent
d) ionic

d

Which of the following are found in the nucleus of an atom?
a) neutrons
b) protons
c) electrons
d) A and B
e) A, B, and C

d

Hydrophobic molecules tend to be ________ by water.
a) repelled
b) absorbed
c) attracted
d) mixed

a

Which of the following results from the making of a bond?
a) Electrons are destroyed.
b) Molecules are broken down.
c) Atoms become more stable.
d) Atoms become more reactive.

c

The electrons of an atom contribute significantly to the mass of an atom.
True
False

false

Covalent bonds form when one atom ________ its ________ with another atom.
a) gives up; electrons
b) gives up; protons
c) gives up; neutrons
d) shares; electrons
e) shares; protons

d

An atom always contains the same number of protons as neutrons.
True
False

false

Water molecules are uncharged and ________.

polar

A single covalent chemical bond represents a sharing of ________ electrons between two atoms.

two

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