Which tool had to be invented before scientists were able to see viruses? (be specific)
give an example of a virus that can attack bacteria
Give an example of one of the worst disasters in recorded history. In what year did it occur?
1918 influenza outbreak
what event encouraged the spread of the influenza virus in 1918?
Where does the flu virus enter the body?
What promised to irradiate the spread/ existence of viral diseases?
What was the name of the scientist who developed the small pox vaccine?
What are the three major functions of the immune system?
recognition, destruction, and remember
How do vaccines work?
body builds immunity to a similar, less harmful strain
How are chicken eggs used in the making of vaccines?
grown in eggs to adapt to chickens
How does the flu virus outsmart vaccination
Why does the vaccine for a DNA virus last longer than vaccine for a RNA virus?
DNA is double stranded
Influenza has the ability to cross from one ____ to another; therefore the virus can change and develop in ____
who developed to polio vaccine?
What kind of virus is the rotavirus?(Where is it found)
bourine found in water
small pox the disease disappeared from the earth in 1978, but small pox the virus can be found in which locations?
What was the main way that
Cortez was able to defeat Aztecs, and the Pilgrims gained an advantage over so the American Indians?
How is the rain forest connected to the emergence of viruses?
organisms host unknown viruses
What virus causes AIDS
HIV is a fast mutating and a ___ virus
How is the cold virus used to fight cystic fibrosis?
viruses are art of
viruses are considered __________ particles because they are not made of cells and do not carry out metabolism
viruses can replicate, but only inside a ___ cell
virus inner core
DNA or RNA
Virus outer coat made up of proteins called a
The arrangement of proteins in the virus
capsid determines the type of _____ it can infect
________Viruses that contain RNA instead of DNA
retroviruses contain the enzyme____ which converts the RNA sequence to a
there are _ types of viral reproductive cycles
attachment, entry replication(viral DNA is copied and viral proteins are made), assemble new viruses are formed), lysis (the gist cell bursts, releasing new viruses
attachment, entry pro virus formation(viral DNA is incorporated into host DNA) cell division(as the cell divides, each new cell receives a copy of the viral DNA
At some point the virus can enter back into the _____ cycle
diseases which take a long time to occur are in the ______ cycle
two of the six kingdoms belong to bacteria. All bacteria are ___ karyotic
Archaebacteria usually live in ___ environments
Metahanogens live in____
Halophiles live in ____ places
thermophiles live in ____ places
Eubacteria are just about everywhere and have various modes of _______
Heterotrophs get their food from a different source may be parasites. Ex:
E. Coli, Streptococcus
Autotrophs make their own food through ________Ex: Cyanobacteria
Cemosynthetic autotrophs make their own food without light and use compounds that are _______
Bacteria lacks a nucleus and contains a circular DNA called a
bacteria has a ___ ___ that may have a sticky capsule surrounding it
flagella are used for____
gram straining tells us about the ___ - ____ structure
gram with stain
gram without stain
Bacteria are asexual by ____ fission.
Bacteria are sexual by_____
can protect the DNA for years during harsh conditions
Antibiotics discovered by ____ ____. Used a common mold, penicillin, that prohibits bacterial growth.
Functions of bacteria:
2.nitrogen fixation converts atmospheric N2 into nitrates
3.food digestion and absorption
a body's way to fight infections by making white blood cells that destroy foreign matter
the foreign material (bacteria, virus, cancer, splinter, etc)
proteins that recognize and bind to the antigen and neutralize it
(B cells) make antibodies
Memory B cells
remember the antigen and make it unlikely the body will be infected by it again
Helper T cells
("T" cells) kill a body's cells that have been invaded by a virus or other pathogen
killer t cells
activate B cells or killer T cells
T cells destroy infected cells
an injection of a mild form of a pathogen(vaccine)
a person will make antibodies to the pathogen and will not be affected if exposed
antibodies produced by other organisms are injected into a person (temporary immunity)
bone formation, linked to vitamin D
water balance, nerve and muscle activity
formation of hemoglobin(oxygen in blood)
water balance linked to high blood pressure
Vitamin D (fat soluble)
helps with absorption of calcium
Folic acid (water soluble)
prevents neural tube defects
functions of integumentary
1.barrier from infection
2.regulate body temperature
parts of integumentary
1.supports the body
2.protects internal organs
4.store mineral reserves
5. blood cell formation
2.circulate blood and food
recognizes and coordinates the body's response to change in environment
1.brings oxygen nutrients to cells
3. remove cell wastes
4. regulate body temperature
eliminate waste products from the body in ways that maintain homeostasis
provides oxygen needed for cellular respiration and removes excess carbon dioxide from thee body
1.growth and development
1.produce reproductive cells
2.nurtures and protects developing embryo