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Pazzi Conspiracy

Conspiracy to overthrow the Medici's.

Act of Supremacy

Declared the king the supreme head of the Church of England.

Council of Trent

Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.

Diet of Worms

Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.

Edict of Nantes

1598 - Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.

Defenestration of Prague

The throwing of Catholic officials from a castle window in Bohemia. Started the Thirty Years' War.

Peace of Westphalia

Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War (1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

Mass slaying of Huguenots (Calvinists) in Paris, on Saint Bartholomew's Day, 1572.

War of the Three Henrys

French civil war because the Holy League vowed to bar Henri of Navarre from inheriting the French throne. Supported by the Holy League and Spain's Philip II, Henri of Guise battles Henri III of Valois and Henri of Navarre.

Fronde

1648-53. Brutal civil wars that struck France during the reign of Louis XIII.

Peace of Utrecht

Ended Louis XIV's attempts to gain military power and land. Marked the end of French expansionist policy. Ended the War of Spanish Succession.

The Restoration

Restored the English monarchy to Charles II, both Houses of Parliament were restored, established Anglican church, courts of law and local government.

Bill of Rights

1689, no law can be suspended by the king; no taxes raised; no army maintained except by parliamentary consent. Established after The Glorious Revolution.

Petition of Rights

Limited the power of Charles I of England. a) could not declare martial law; b) could not collect taxes; c) could not imprison people without cause; d) soldiers could not be housed without consent.

War of Austrian Succession

Conflict caused by the rival claims for the dominions of the Habsburg family. Before the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor and archduke of Austria, many of the European powers had guaranteed that Charles's daughter Maria Theresa would succeed him.

Pragmatic Sanction

Issued by Charles VI of Austria in 1713 to assure his daughter Maria Theresa gained the throne.

Enclosure movement

18th century English movement, marked the rise of market oriented estate.

Bastille

Medieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution.

Committee of Public Safety

Established and led by Robespierre, fixed bread prices and nationalized some businesses. Basically secret police and also controlled the war effort. Instigated the Reign of Terror.

National Convention

The third estate of the Estates General -broke from the Estates because they wanted the Estates to sit as a committee and not as segregated groups.

Thermidorean Reaction

A reaction against the violence of the Reign of Terror. Robespierre was executed.

Berlin Decree

1806-issued by Napoleon, instituted the Continental System, in the response to British blockade of commercial ports under French control.

Confederation of the Rhine

League of German States organized by Napoleon in 1813 after defeating the Austrians at Austerlitz. The league collapsed after Napoleon's defeat in Russia.

Continental System

(1806-12)French economic plan to cripple Britain. Russia's refusal to conform led to the Russian campaign.

Louis XVIII

(1814-24) tried to issue a Constitutional Charter which accepted many revolutionary changes and guaranteed civil liberties

Napoleonic Code

Passed by Napoleon. Took away many of the rights gained by women, aimed at reestablihing the "family monarchy". Modified after Napoleon's defeat.

The Hundred Days

The time from Napoleon's return from exile on Elba to defeat at Waterloo.

Combination Acts

1799 and 1800-made trade unionism illegal.

Corn Laws

1815 tariff on imported grain to protect domestic producers. Never worked well.

Factory Act 1833

Created factory worday for children between 9-13 to 8 hours a day. Not applicable to home. Outlawed child labor under 9-factory owners establish schools. Destroyed family unit.

Laissez-faire capitalism

Minimal governmental interference in the economic affairs. Adam Smith and Francois Quesnay.

A People's Charter

Draft of reform Bill which called for universal suffrage payment of members of Parliament and annual elections-6 main points.

Poor Law

1834, Gave some aid to the poor, but not very helpful against unemployment. Very favorable to employers.

First Reform Bill

1832, Modified the old political system by easing voting qualifications (but still not easy to qualify!). Abolished some smaller boroughs.

Second Reform Bill

1867, Conservatives and Liberals trying to gain votes. Disraeli's Conservatives extended the vote to almost 1 million more voters.

Ausgleich, 1867

Refers to the compromise of 1867 which created the dual monarchy of Austria and Hungary.

Carlsbad Decrees

1819, it discouraged liberal teachings in southern Germany. Censorship imposed by Metternich.

Ems Dispatch

A message from William I of Prussia to Napoleon III which brought France into the Franco Prussian war.

Franco-Prussian War

1870-71, war between France and Prussia; seen as German victory; seen as a struggle of Darwinism; led to Prussia being the most powerful European nation. Instigated by Bismarck; France seen as the aggressor.

Frankfurt Assembly

1807-82; personified the romantic revolutionary nationalism. Attempted to unify Germany.

Treaty of Frankfurt

The end of the Franco-Prussian War. Alsace and Lorraine given to Germany.

Algeciras Conference

Conference provoked Germany backfired on Germany over the issues of the Morocco crisis.

Boer War

English vs. Dutch settlers in South Africa. England won 1899-02, showed that English tactics were no good.

Congress of Berlin

Assembly of representatives of Germany, Russia, Hungary, Britain, France, Italy, and the Ottoman Empire.

Fashoda Incident

Conflict in Africa between France and Britain.

Balkan Wars

Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria took Macedonia from the Ottomans in 1912. Serbia then fought Bulgaria in the second Balkan War in 1913 Austria intervened to stop the war.

Berlin Conference, 1885

Laid down the rules for the conquest of Africa: 1) European countries holding a coast inland. 2) Occupation must be with real troops 3) Must give notice of which countries were occupied. 4) Started the scramble for Africa.

Lusitania

Sunk in 1915 by a German submarine. 139 American killed. Forced Germany to stop submarine warfare.

Battle of the Marne

A major French victory against the invading German army at the start of WWI. In reality lost Germany the war.

Morocco Crisis, 1911

After the French received Morocco, Germany demanded an international conference- German bullying forced England and France closer. Germany gained nothing.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

Treaty between Bolsheviks and Germans to get Russia out of the war. 1) Russia lost 1/3 of her population. 2) height of German success in WWI. Signed by Lenin.

Treaty of Versailles

Negotiated by the Big Three Germany was stripped of colonies Alsace and Loraine given back to France. Poland was reconstituted as a state. Polish corridor would split Prussia from Germany. The Saar region would be French for 15 years. Heavy repercussions (not specified until later.)

Battle of Verdun

1916 German assault on the French fortress- turned into a battle of attrition France won.

Triple Entente

1914, Great Britain, France, and Russia.

Zimmerman Telegram

German Arthur Zimmerman sent a telegram to the German minister in Mexico City telling him to promise the Mexican President German help if Mexico went to war with the U.S. the telegram was intercepted and decoded by the British, shocked the American public.

Decembrist Revolt

Uprising in Russia mainly soldiers soon suppressed-first manifestation of the modern revolutionary movement inspired by ideology.

Fundamental Laws

Issued by the Russian Government in 1906. The tsar retained great power. The Duma was elected by universal male suffrage. The Upper House could pass laws but the Tsar had veto power.

March Revolution

Bolsheviks become the leaders of Russia.

October Manifesto

Issued in Russia because of fear of a general strike. Granted full civil rights and a popular parliament- Duma.

Anschluss

The annexation of Austria by Germany in 1938.

Anti-Comintern Pact

Between Hitler and Japan; offered security against Russia.

Atlantic Charter

August 1941; called for peace without territorial expansion or secret agreements, and for free elections, and self - determination for all liberated nations.

Casablanca Conference

Resolved to accept nothing less than unconditional surrender of Axis powers.

D-Day

June 6, 1944; Americans and British forces under General Dwight Eisenhower landed on the beaches of Normandy; this was history's greatest naval invasion.

Battle of Stalingrad

Turning point for Germany in the war.

Maginot Line

Line of defense built by France to protect against German invasion. Stretched from Belgium to Switzerland.

Munich Conference

1938; Chamberlain, France and other countries (not the USSR); they agreed that Sudentenland should be ceded to Germany; Chamberlain secured peace with Germany.

Potsdam Conference

Brought forward many differences over east Europe; postwar conference in July of 1945; Stalin would not allow any type of freely elected government in east European countries; Roosevelt had died and was succeeded by Harry Truman, who demanded free elections.

Russo-German Nonaggression Pact

Hitler and Stalin promised to remain neutral if either country were to become involved in war; August 1939. Was supposed to last 10 years, but Hitler invaded Russia in 1941.

Sudetenland

Hitler wanted German speaking people in West Czech; this would be given to Germany.

Teheran Conference

Meeting in 1943; Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill; confirmed their defense to crush Hitler.

Yalta Conference

On the Black Sea; the Big Three met in February 1945 in southern Russia; it was agreed that Germany would be divided into zones of occupation and would pay heavy reparations to the soviet Union in the form of agricultural and industrial goods; when the Big Three met in 1945 at Yalta in southern Russia they agreed that east European governments were to be freely elected but pro-soviet.

Konrad Adenauer

Chancellor of Germany in 1949; the former mayor of Cologne and a long-time anti-Nazi, who began his long highly successful democratic rule; West Germany had a majority of Christian Democrats; helped regain respect for Germany

Brezhnev Doctrine

Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need.

European Coal and Steel Community

international organization to control and integrate all European coal and steel production. Consisted of West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, and France. Number 1 goal to be so close together economically that war against them impossible. "The six".

European Economic Community

caused by the Marshall Plan.

Hungarian Revolution

1956. Led by students and workers, installed Liberal Communist Imre Nagy. Forced soviet soldiers to leave and promised free election, renounced Hungary's military alliance with Moscow. Revolution was crushed by the Soviet Union.

Marshall Plan

U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall urged Americans to offer economic aide- this was the Marshall Plan. Refused by Stalin.

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization- formed in 1949 by U.S. anti-Soviet Military alliance of Western Governments.

Schuman Plan

called for special international organization to control and integrate all European coal and steal production.

Treaty of Rome

Six nations of Coal and Steal Community signed to create EEC.

Warsaw Pact

Created by Stalin to counter NATO and to tighten his hold on satellites.

Perestroika

Economic restructuring by Gorbachev

Glasnost

A newfound openness of government and media.

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