Pure music with generic titles reflecting their form, genre, or tempo and without any extra musical associations. eg: Eine kleine Nachtmusik by Mozart
In a fugue, it's the second statement of the main theme or subject in the dominant key. eg: The Well-Tempered Clavier by Bach
Small brass disks that produce a gentle ringing sound when struck together and it was used in the final section of Prelude a l'apres-midi d'un faune by Debussy
A sectional structure used in the Modern era that is based on repetition in reverse order wwhich imparts on averall symmetry. eg: Distant Memories by Louie
The musical setting of a poem for solo voice with accompaniment in the Romantic era. eg: Erlkonig by Schubert
The tonal absense of any tonal center characterized by unresolved dissonances which is mostly used in the Modern era. eg:Distant Memories by Louie
A 19th century, highly stylizrd type of dance that was first developed in the 17th century at the Russian court. eg: Petrushka by Stravinsky
It was first used as a term in reference to the overly ornate art of the era that's now applied to art, architecture, and music of the 17th & 18th century.
A Baroque performance practice providing harmonic framework on the harpsichord or organ involving two players where one person is playing the notated bass line and the other one realizing the harmoniws by the figured bass. eg: Messiah by Handel
An indication used in the Romantic and Modern era meaning "play as a lullaby". eg" Distant Memories-Section B by Louie
A two-part form (AB) with repeats often used in Baroque dances and keyboard pieces where section A ends with an open cadence. eg: Prelude and Fugue in B flat major by Bach
A popular Cuban dance of the early 1950s which was incorporated into Modern works and was derived from the mambo and its name is derived from the sound of its characteristic rhythm. eg: West Side Story by Bernstein
An Italina operatic style that translated literally as "beautiful singing". eg: Polonaise in A flat major op 53 by Chopin
A small ensemble for one player per instrument that usually has 2 to 10 players which was used in the Classical era often performed without a conductor. eg: "Quinten" by Haydn
A technique in Modern era which shifts of metrical groupings are manifested through changes of time signature. eg: West Side Story or Petrushka
The art of designing dance steps and movement in a ballet or musical. eg: West Side Story or Petrushka
Exclusive use of notes not part of the key signature and was increasingly used for heightened expresssion in the 19th century music. eg: Polonaise in A flat major by Chopin
A ptiched percusiion instrument used in the Romantic and Modern era that emits a ringing sound when struck with a hammer or mallet. eg" Symphonie fantastique by Berlioz
A concluding section used in the sonata form where it reaffirms the tonic key. eg: Symphony No.5 op.67 by Beethoven
A novel string effect invented by Berlioz in the omantic era when the player tap on the strings with the wooden part of their bow. eg:" Dance of the Witches"
A recurring melody used in a fugue of the Baroque era that accompanies the entires of the subject and answers.
Material used in the Classical era where it's heard in one movement then recurs in a multi-movement work.
da capo aria
The most common type of song with three-part structure in Baroque opera and oratorio and in performance the return of Secion A is usually ornamented. eg: messiah by Handel
The second main section in sonata form where new themes are introduced and themes from the exposition are manipulated through fragmentation, sequential treatment, modulations, and increased harmonic tension.
A monophonic changt melody dating from late Middel ages drwan from Roman Catholic requiem (Mass for the Dead).
A sustained bass note that provides a rudimentary harmonic foundation and this is common in folk music. eg: "La Primavera" 4th MVT. by Vivaldi
A through-composed song structire that avoids repetition of entire sections of the music and as a reusult, melody, harmony, and piano accompaniment are able to reflect the meaning of the text. Erlkonig by Schubert
A passage within a fugue in Baroque era that's neither subject or answer and frequently sequential.
A method of tuning keyboard instruments so that all notes are divided equally. The Well-Tempered Clavier by Bach
exoticism in music
An important element of 19th century musical style of fascination with foreign lands and cultures evoked through melody, rhythm, harmony, and orchestration. eg: Madama Butterfly by Puccini
The first main section in sonata form where the first theme in the tonic contrasts with the second theme in the dominant or relative key.
An innovative effect introduced in 20th century music that rolls the tongue while playing a wing instrument sounding the letter "r" eg: Petrushka
Songs of unknown authorship passed down through oral tradition rathere than written down. eg.Petrushka or Quinten
A Baroque orchestral genre in two parts where the first part is slow and homophonic and the second part is fast and imitative. eg: Messiah-Overture
A highly structured, imitative composition developed in the Baroque era where it has subject, countersubject, answers, erpidoes, and more than 2 voices.
On the harp, a quick strumming of all the string with a borad sweeping hand movement creating beuatiful shimmering sounds. eg: Prelude a l'apres-midi d'un faune by Debussy
A cuban dance song in 2/4 time with a specific rhythmic motive. eg: Carmen by Bizet
A temporary shift of the metric accents where motes grouped as threes are momentarily grouped in twos or vice-versa. eg"West Side Story-"America"
A single line of melody supported by an accompaniment.
All voices sing in the same rhythm delivering the text with clarity and emphasis resulting in a blocked texture. eg: Messiah-Overture
A recurring theme which undergoes transformation serving as a unifyling thread a multimovement composition. eg: "The Beloved" in 5th MVT, and 1ST MVT.
Impressionism in music
Reflects French artistic movement suggesting images rather that depicting directly featuring innovative orchestral colours, including solo tratment of instruments, used of muted instruments, obscuring of metric pulse, and expanded vocabulary: whole tone, modal. pentatonic, and parallel chords. eg:Prelude a l'apres-midi d'un faune by Debussy
A group of notes sung on a single vowel demonstrating cocal wirtuosity often serving to highlight key words. eg: Messiah-Rejoice Greatly
A unique American genre and play with spoken dialogue but featuring musical numbers: songs, dances, choruses, and staging is often spectacular.
nationalism in music
An important element of 19th century musical style where patriotism is expressed through music with the influence of folk song, dance, myths, landscapes, and historical events.
A drama, created in Italy about 1600, that is sung with components like recitatives, airas, ensembles, and choruses combining vocal and instrumental music with drama, visual arts, and often dance.
A now obsolete brass instrument that was a predessor of the tuba. eg: Symphonie fantastique-Dies irae
The use of more than 2 tonal centers (or chords) eg: Petrushka
A novel instrumental technique adapted by Berlioz of sliding smoothly from one note to the next.
An effect created largely by rhythm with used of strong accents, syncopation, polymeter, and expanded percussion section.
A significant trend in 19th century music where its instrumental music with extra-musical associations with descriptive titles identifying connectiions including a written text by the composer.
Multimovement programmatic orchestral work, typically from the nineteenth century.
One of the most popular forma of orchestral program music invented by Liszt, where it's a single movement work, generally in free form with pictorial or literary associations.
A elaborate instrumental composition in 3 or more movements, simliar to the sonata but written for an orchestra.
A device used frequently by Puccini where it's the orchestral doubling of the vocal line.
Musical pictorialization achieved through melody, rhythm, or harmony.