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selective permeability

a property of biological membranes that allow some substances to pass through while keeping others out

phospholipid bilayer

a double layer of phospholipids that makes up plasma and organelle membranes

transport protein

a protein located in the cell membrane that helps move specific substances in and out of the cell

fluid mosaic model

structural model of the plasma membrane where molecules are free to move sideways within a lipid bilayer

cytoplasm

a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended

cytoskeleton

a network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement

ribosome

An organelle that functions in the synthesis of proteins

nucleolus

structure inside the nucleus, where ribosomes are made

endoplasmic reticulum

a system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids

Golgi apparatus

stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum into sacs called vesicles

vacuole

storage structures for food, water, minerals, waste

lysosome

the organelle that digests food particles, wastes, cell parts, and foreign invaders

centriole

specialized organelle that directs cell division in animal cells

mitochondrion

An organelle that carries out cellular respiration, which produces the energy a cell needs to carry out its activities

chloroplast

organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that carries out photosynthesis, which captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy

cell wall

a rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms and gives them support

cilium

a short, hairlike projection from the surface of a cell

flagellum

a long, hairlike structure that grows out of a cell and enables the cell to move

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