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Protista

eukaryotic organisms that are unicellular, or they are multicellular without specialized tissues (the odds and ends group)

Plantae

multicellular organisms that use photosynthesis to produce their own food

Animalia

multicellular organism that must eat other organisms for food

Fungi

multicellular organisms with cell walls that get their food through decomposing other organisms

Unicellular

an organism that is made up of only one cell, such as amoebas or yeast

Multicellular

an organism that is made up of more than one cell, like animals

Organelles

is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, such as the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi body

Plant Cell

different from animal cells in that their cells contain chloroplasts, a large vacuole, and a cell wall

Animal Cell

have a rounder shape from the lack of cell wall, and cannot make their own food

Gene

a unit of heredity in a living organism, a section of the DNA that codes for a protein

Chromosome

organized structure of DNA and protein found in cells. It is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes. Humans have 2 sets of 23 chromosomes.

Asexual Reproduction

is a mode of reproduction by which offspring come from a single parent, and inherit the genes of that parent only

Sexual Reproduction

is the creation of a new organism by combining the genetic material of two organisms

Cells

the basic unit of life

Tissues

a group of cells that perform the same function

Organs

a group of tissues that perform the same function (ex. Heart, lung)

Organ Systems

a group of organs that work together

Organisms

any living thing that can reproduce, respond to its environment and grow and develop

Consumer

receive their energy from eating other organisms, also known as a heterotroph

Producer

make their own food, also known as an autotroph

Decomposer

are organisms that break down dead or decaying organisms, like herbivores and predators, decomposers are heterotrophic

Weight

the mass of an object and the effect of gravity

Volume

the amount of space an object takes up (usually measured in cm3 or mL)

Mass

how much matter and object has (usually measured in grams)

Density

mass divided by volume (how much stuff fits in a certain space)

Atoms

The atom is a basic unit of matter that consists of a dense, central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons

Molecules

two or more atoms that are chemically bonded

Compounds

two or more atoms from different elements that are chemically bonded with a chemical formula

Elements

one type of atom, can be found on the periodic table (such as carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen)

Pure Substance

has definite unique chemical properties (melting point, boiling point), and has a specific formula that can be written

Mixture

is a material system made up by two or more different substances which are mixed together but are not combined chemically.

Boiling Point

is when a liquid begins to change into a gas, can be sued to identify what the substance is

Melting Point

of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid, can be used to identify what the substance is

Potential Energy

stored energy due to position

Kinetic Energy

energy due to motion

Thermal energy

results in the temperature of something, the more thermal energy, the higher the temperature, which means the move active the molecules and the less dense the substance

Lithosphere

outer most shell of the Earth, made up of the crust and the upper mantle

Mantle

the area of hot rock that has convection currents which cause shifts in the lithosphere

Core

the hot metal ball inside of the earth

Erosion

is the process of weathering and transport of solids (sediment, soil, rock and other particles) in the natural environment or their source and deposits them elsewhere. It usually occurs due to transport by wind, water, or ice

Weathering

is the breaking down of Earth's rocks, soils and minerals

Plate Tectonics

The lithosphere is broken up into what are called "tectonic plates". The lithospheric plates ride on the mantle. These plates move in relation to one another at one of three types of plate boundaries.

Atmosphere

the layer of gases that surrounds the Earth, the further out you travel the fewer molecules and therefore the less dense the atmosphere

Hydrosphere

describes the combined mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of a planet

Ocean currents

is a continuous, directed movement of ocean water

Galaxy

a huge group of single stars, star systems, star cluster, dust, and gas bound together by gravity

Universe

all of space and everything in it

Planet

A planet is a body that is in orbit around a sun, has enough self-gravity to remain a sphere, AND has cleared the neighborhood on which it orbits (is in control of its orbit)

Gravity

the forces the pulls objects toward each other- like dropping objects falling towards the ground on earth or the sun's gravity pulling the earth into an orbit

Inertia

the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion- the more mass an object has the more inertia it has

Rotation

the spinning motion of a planet on its axis- this causes night and day on Earth

Revolution

the movement of an object around another object - like the moon's revolution around the Earth

Orbit

the path of an object as it revolves around another object in space- like the path the moon takes as it moves in its revolution around the Earth

Inner planets

4 small, dense, and rocky surfaced planets often called the terrestrial planets- Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars)

Outer planets

often called the gas giants, they are much larger and more massive than Earth and they do not have solid surfaces

Seasons

created by the tilt in the Earth's axis

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