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AP Exam 2012

Law of Segregation

During formation of gametes, 2 traits carried by each parent separate: Monohybrid cross

Monohybrid cross

Phenotype ratio: 3:1, Genotype ratio: 1:2:1 (Aa x Aa)

Law of independent assortment

Applies in a cross between 2 individuals hybrid for 2+traits Not on the same chromosome

Dihybrid Cross

Cross between 2 individuals hybrid for 2 different traits: AaBb x AaBb, can have AB Ab aB ab: 9:3:3:1

Incomplete Dominance

Dominance characterized by blending: Eg. White + Red = pink flower

Codominance

Dominance where both traits show: eg. Blood groups (MN) in humans

Multiple Alleles

When there are more than 2 allelic forms of a gene: eg. A, B, AB, O blood types

Pleiotropy

Ability of 1 gene to affect an organism in several ways

Epistasis

2 separate genes control 1 trait, but 1 gene masks the expression of the other gene

Polygenic

Traits like this result from a blending of several separate genes

Sex-influenced trait

Inheritance influenced by sex of individual carrying the traits

Linked genes

Genes on the same chromosome

Sex-linked

Traits carried on the X chromosome

Autosome

Chromosome that is not X or Y

Chiasma

Site of chromosome crossover

Mutations

Any changes in the genome, can be gene mutations (changes in sequence) or chromosome mutations

Deletion

Chromosomal aberration of fragment lost

Inversion

When a chromosomal fragment reattaches in reverse direction

Translocation

When a fragment of a chromosome is attached to a non-homologous chromosome

Polyploidy

When there are extra chromosomes

Nondisjunction

Error in meiosis where homologous chromosomes fail to separate

Aneuploidy

Any abnormal chromosome number

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