ch 27 take home exam

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1. Intracellular fluid (ICF) is found only within
a. blood vessels.
b. lymph.
c. the cells of the body.
d. the interstitial space.
e. the cerebrospinal fluid.

C

2. The extracellular fluid (ECF) consists of the
a. plasma and lymph.
b. interstitial fluid.
c. cerebrospinal fluid.
d. all of the above
e. A and B only

D

3. The principal cation in intracellular fluid is
a. sodium.
b. potassium.
c. calcium.
d. magnesium.
e. chloride.

B

4. When water is lost, but electrolytes are retained,
a. the osmolarity of the ECF falls.
b. osmosis moves water from the ICF to the ECF.
c. both the ECF and the ICF become more dilute.
d. there is an increase in the volume of the ICF.
e. both B and D

B

5. When pure water is consumed,
a. the ECF becomes hypertonic to the ICF.
b. a fluid shift occurs and the volume of the ICF decreases.
c. osmolarities of the two fluid compartments fall.
d. the volume of the ECF decreases.
e. the volume of the ICF decreases.

?

6. Consuming a meal high in salt will
a. drastically increase the osmolarity of the blood.
b. result in a temporary increase in blood volume.
c. decrease thirst.
d. cause hypotension.
e. activate the renin-angiotensin mechanism.

B

7. Antidiuretic hormone
a. is secreted by the adenohypophysis.
b. stimulates water intake.
c. stimulates water conservation by the kidneys.
d. A, B, and C
e. B and C only

E

8. Aldosterone
a. is secreted in response to elevated levels of potassium in the blood.
b. promotes sodium retention in the kidneys.
c. helps decrease blood volume and lower blood pressure.
d. A, B, and C
e. A and B only

E

9. Which of the following will stimulate thirst?
a. drying the mucosa of the mouth and pharynx
b. angiotensin II acting on the hypothalamus
c. an increase in the osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid within the hypothalamus
d. A and B only
e. A, B, and C

E

10. The ions in highest concentration in the intracellular fluid are
a. potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate.
b. sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate.
c. sodium, potassium, and calcium.
d. potassium, hydrogen, and chloride.
e. proteins, potassium, and phosphate.

E

11. The ions in highest concentration in the extracellular fluid are
a. sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate.
b. sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate.
c. sodium, potassium, and calcium.
d. sodium, hydrogen, and chloride.
e. sodium, potassium, and phosphate.

A

12. Excess hydrogen ion is eliminated from the body largely by
a. sweating.
b. the kidneys.
c. the liver.
d. the feces.
e. buffers.

B

13. The amount of potassium excreted by the kidneys is regulated mainly by
a. ADH.
b. aldosterone.
c. parathormone.
d. atrial natriuretic peptides.
e. glucocorticoids.

B

14. Calcium reabsorption by the kidneys is promoted by the hormone
a. calcitonin.
b. parathyroid hormone.
c. aldosterone.
d. cortisol.
e. ADH.

B

15. In a lean adultmale, the body consists of about ________ percent water.
a. 60
b. 90
c. 40
d. 10
e. 80

A

16. The primary role of the carbonic-acid-bicarbonate buffer system is to
a. buffer stomach acid.
b. buffer carbonic acid formed by carbon dioxide.
c. limit pH changes caused by organic and fixed acids.
d. buffer the urine.
e. increase ventilation.

C

17. About two-thirds of the body fluid is within cells and is termed ________ fluid.
a. intracellular
b. intercellular
c. extracellular
d. interstitial
e. vital

A

18. Hypoventilation leads to
a. respiratory acidosis.
b. respiratory alkalosis.
c. metabolic acidosis.
d. metabolic alkalosis.

A

19. In response to respiratory alkalosis, the
a. respiratory rate increases.
b. tidal volume increases.
c. kidneys conserve bicarbonate.
d. kidneys secrete more hydrogen ions.
e. kidneys retain more hydrogen ions.

E

20. Prolonged vomiting can result in
a. respiratory acidosis.
b. respiratory alkalosis.
c. metabolic acidosis.
d. metabolic alkalosis.

D

21. A person with emphysema will exhibit signs of
a. chronic respiratory acidosis.
b. chronic respiratory alkalosis.
c. acute respiratory acidosis.
d. chronic metabolic acidosis.

A

22. A person with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus will develop
a. respiratory acidosis.
b. respiratory alkalosis.
c. metabolic acidosis.
d. metabolic alkalosis.

C

23. A patient on a ventilator subjected to excessive minute volume is at risk for
a. respiratory acidosis.
b. respiratory alkalosis.
c. metabolic acidosis.
d. metabolic alkalosis.

B

24. A person who consumes large amounts of sodium bicarbonate ("baking soda") to settle an upset stomach risks
a. respiratory acidosis.
b. respiratory alkalosis.
c. metabolic acidosis.
d. metabolic alkalosis.

D

25. Severe kidney damage (such as glomerulonephritis) often leads to
a. respiratory acidosis.
b. respiratory alkalosis.
c. metabolic acidosis.
d. metabolic alkalosis.

C

26. Substances that can carry electrical current across cell membranes are called
a. electrons.
b. electrolytes.
c. nonelectrolytes.
d. osmoregulators.
e. buffers.

B

27. Which hormone stimulates the thirst mechanism?
a. ADH
b. aldosterone
c. BNP
d. ANP
e. epinephrine

A

28. In an adult female, the body consists of about ________ percent water.
a. 60
b. 50
c. 40
d. 70
e. 80

B

29. All of the following are components of ECF, except
a. cerebrospinal fluid.
b. peritoneal fluid.
c. lymph.
d. aqueous humor.
e. RBCs.

E

30. Which hormone plays a central role in determining the rate of sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion?
a. ADH
b. aldosterone
c. BNP
d. ANP
e. epinephrine

B

31. Exchange between the two main subdivisions of ECF occurs primarily at the
a. veins.
b. muscles.
c. tissues.
d. capillaries.
e. arteries.

D

32. Which hormone(s) is released by heart muscle in response to excessive chamber volume?
a. ADH
b. aldosterone
c. PTH
d. acetylcholine
e. natriuretic peptides

E

33. A patient who has been both vomiting and having diarrhea is losing ________ from his body.
a. water
b. sodium
c. bicarbonate ion
d. hydrogen ion
e. all of the above

E

34. Which hormone most affects the osmolarity of blood?
a. ADH
b. angiotensin II
c. PTH
d. ANP
e. epinephrine

A

35. Approximately ________ liters of peritoneal fluid are produced and reabsorbed each day.
a. 10
b. 9
c. 15
d. 7
e. 20

D

36. The most common problems with electrolyte balance are caused by an imbalance between gains and losses of
a. calcium ions.
b. chlorine ions.
c. potassium ions.
d. sodium ions.
e. electrons.

D

37. The release of atrial naturetic peptides from the heart will cause the body to
a. conserve sodium ions.
b. decrease ECF.
c. excrete sodium ions.
d. both A and B
e. both B and C

E

38. Angiotensin II produces a coordinated elevation in the ECF volume by
a. stimulating thirst.
b. causing the release of ADH.
c. triggering the production and secretion of aldosterone.
d. both A and B
e. A, B, and C

E

39. Which of the following descriptions best fits the acid-base disorder metabolic alkalosis?
a. consequence of hyperventilation, for example in fever or mental illness
b. consequence of prolonged vomiting
c. consequence of reduced alveolar ventilation, for example due to COPD
d. consequence of tissue hypoxia, for example in ischemic conditions

B

40. A chemical that minimizes changes in the pH of a body fluid by releasing or binding hydrogen ion is called a(n)
a. electrolyte.
b. acid.
c. alkali.
d. compensation.
e. buffer.

E

41. Secretion of potassium into the urine is
a. increased by aldosterone.
b. associated with the reabsorption of sodium from the distal tubules and collecting ducts.
c. minimal because the human diet includes very little potassium.
d. A, B, and C
e. A and B only

E

42. To reduce brain swelling by pulling water out of brain cells, a substance can be injected intravenously to increase the osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid. Which of the following properties can this substance not have in order to be effective?
a. permeable to capillary endothelium
b. nontoxic to neurons
c. permeable to brain plasma membranes
d. impermeable to brain plasma membranes
e. soluble in water

C

43. Which of the following descriptions best fits the acid-base disorder respiratory acidosis?
a. consequence of hyperventilation, for example in fever or mental illness
b. consequence of prolonged vomiting
c. consequence of reduced alveolar ventilation, for example due to emphysema
d. consequence of tissue hypoxia, for example in ischemic conditions

C

44. When the pH of the extracellular fluid drops, the
a. kidneys excrete more hydrogen ions.
b. kidneys excrete more bicarbonate ions.
c. kidneys excrete fewer bicarbonate ions.
d. A and B only
e. A and C only

E

45. Which of the following descriptions best fits the acid-base disorder respiratory alkalosis?
a. consequence of hyperventilation, for example in fever or mental illness
b. consequence of prolonged vomiting
c. consequence of reduced alveolar ventilation, for example due to COPD
d. consequence of tissue hypoxia, for example in ischemic conditions

A

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