AP BIO (DNA + Macromolecules)

53 terms by anisa28 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

macromolecules, dna, and experiments using DNA

11) Which of the following components of the cell membrane is responsible for active transport?
a. Phospholipid
b. Protein
c. Lipid
d. Phosphate
e. Cholesterol

B

19) AIDS is caused by the retrovirus HIV, which makes DNA complementary to the viral RNA using
a. RNA polymerase
b. beta-galactosidase
c. RNA synthase
d. ATPase
e. reverse transcriptase

E

24) The synthesis of protein or carbohydrate polymers always produces which of the following as a byproduct?
a. ATP
b. Oxygen
c. Carbon dioxide
d. Urea
e. Water

E

50) Activated by directly binding to GTP
a. Adenylate cyclase
b. G-protein
c. Carrier protein
d. cAMP
e. Ion channel receptor protein

B

51) Catalyzes the formation of cytosolic second-messenger molecules
a. Adenylate cyclase
b. G-protein
c. Carrier protein
d. cAMP
e. Ion channel receptor protein

A

52) Enhances the transport of lipophilic signals in the blood
a. Adenylate cyclase
b. G-protein
c. Carrier protein
d. cAMP
e. Ion channel receptor protein

C

53) Serves as an intracellular second-messenger molecule
a. Adenylate cyclase
b. G-protein
c. Carrier protein
d. cAMP
e. Ion channel receptor protein

D

54) This protein requires iron as a cofactor.
a. Keratin
b. Hemoglobin
c. Actin
d. Insulin
e. Pepsin

B

55) This protein functions in muscle contraction.
a. Keratin
b. Hemoglobin
c. Actin
d. Insulin
e. Pepsin

C

56) This is the principal protein component of skin.
a. Keratin
b. Hemoglobin
c. Actin
d. Insulin
e. Pepsin

A

57) This protein functions optimally in high H+ concentrations.
a. Keratin
b. Hemoglobin
c. Actin
d. Insulin
e. Pepsin

E

65) Associated with inactivated DNA
a. Methylation
b. Enhancer activity
c. RNA capping
d. RNA spliceosome activity
e. Reverse transcription

A

66) Protects RNA from hydrolysis
a. Methylation
b. Enhancer activity
c. RNA capping
d. RNA spliceosome activity
e. Reverse transcription

C

67) Selectively removes RNA segments
a. Methylation
b. Enhancer activity
c. RNA capping
d. RNA spliceosome activity
e. Reverse transcription

D

68) Increases RNA polymerase activity
a. Methylation
b. Enhancer activity
c. RNA capping
d. RNA spliceosome activity
e. Reverse transcription

B

70) All of the following made the separation of these DNA fragments possible EXCEPT
a. the negative charge of the DNA
b. the percentage of G + C bases
c. the porous nature of the gel
d. different fragment sizes
e. positive electrode placement

B

72) (slide 5) All of the following are likely steps that would lead to the production of these gel patterns EXCEPT
a. isolating the DNA from each individual
b. using a different restriction enzyme to treat the DNA of each individual
c. loading the DNA into separate wells in an agarose gel
d. separating the fragments in an electrical field
e. probing the DNA with an oligonucleotide specific to the short repeating sequence

B

75) (slide 6) The same procedure was repeated with a second protein (protein Y). If the function of Y is protein processing and packaging, the most radioactivity would be found in the
a. Golgi apparatus
b. Nucleus
c. Mitochondria
d. Lysosomes
e. Cytoplasm

A

97) (slide 12) Which of the following best describes why the disks rose to the surface faster in the more concentrated hydrogen peroxide solutions?
a. There was more enzyme present in the more concentrated solutions.
b. A greater amount of heat was generated in the more concentrated solutions.
c. The more concentrated solutions lowered the activation energy of the reaction.
d. The higher substrate concentrations in the more concentrated solutions speeded the reaction.
e. The density of the water was lower in the more concentrated solutions.

D

99) (slide 12) Which of the following best describes why ice was used during this experiment?
a. To increase the activity of the enzyme
b. To retard the breakdown of the catalase
c. To purge the solution of excess air trapped during blending
d. To slow the catalase molecules to increase the probability of contact with the hydrogen peroxide molecules
e. To increase the size of the active site on the enzyme

B

20.Which of the following statements regarding coenzymes is true?
A. they are essential for metabolic reactions in animals but not in plants
B. They can facilitate metabolic reactions by combining with enzymes at their active sites
C. They are minerals that alter the pH of cells and thus increase the probability of chemical reactions
D. They are synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells.
E. They typically work best at temperatures below 37C

B

31. Analysis of DNA sequences from two individuals of the same species results in a greater estimate of genetic variability than does analysis of amino acid sequences from the same individuals because
A. different DNA sequences can code for the same amino acid
B. Some amino acid variations cannot be detected b protein electrophoresis
C. DNA sequencing is more reliable technique than protein electrophoresis
D. proteins are more easily damaged than is DNA
E. DNA is more heat-sensitive and therefore varies more

A

34.Which of the following best describes why the polymerase chain reaction is a standard technique used in molecular biology research?
A. It uses inexpensive materials and produces perfect results
B. It can purify specific section of a DNA molecule
C. It can produce large amounts of specific DNA sequences
D. It can duplicate the entire human genome
E. It can produce large amounts of mRNA

C

49.Certain metabolic pathways are affected by the buildup of a product which interacts with
an enzyme catalyzing one of the initial steps of the pathway; this can be an example of
(A) transcriptional regulation
(B) thermodynamic regulation
(C) translational regulation
(D) feedback inhibition
(E) posttranslational modification

D

58.Which of the following can be diagnosed by examining a karyotype of an individual's
white blood cells?
(A) Sickle cell anemia
(B) Alzheimer disease
(C) Down syndrome
(D) Cystic fibrosis
(E) Duchenne muscular dystrophy

C

62.(A) DNA ligase
(B) DNA polymerase
(C) RNA polymerase
(D) Restriction enzyme
(E) Reverse transcriptase
Enzyme used in the synthesis of mRNA

C

63.(A) DNA ligase
(B) DNA polymerase
(C) RNA polymerase
(D) Restriction enzyme
(E) Reverse transcriptase
Enzyme used during replication to attach Okazaki fragments to each other

A

64.(A) DNA ligase
(B) DNA polymerase
(C) RNA polymerase
(D) Restriction enzyme
(E) Reverse transcriptase
Enzyme found in retroviruses that produce DNA from an RNA template

E

65.(A) DNA ligase
(B) DNA polymerase
(C) RNA polymerase
(D) Restriction enzyme
(E) Reverse transcriptase
Enzyme used to position nucleotides during DNA replication

B

70.(A) Proteins
(B) Carbohydrates
(C) Nucleic acids
(D) Lipids
(E) Steroids
Synthesized at the ribosome

A

71.(A) Proteins
(B) Carbohydrates
(C) Nucleic acids
(D) Lipids
(E) Steroids
Includes glycogen, chitin, cellulose, and glucose

B

72.(A) Proteins
(B) Carbohydrates
(C) Nucleic acids
(D) Lipids
(E) Steroids
Used for insulation and buoyancy in marine Arctic animals

D

73.(A) Proteins
(B) Carbohydrates
(C) Nucleic acids
(D) Lipids
(E) Steroids
Used to carry the genetic code

C

90.In the 1940's, Avery, MacCleod, and McCarty transformed nonencapsulated bacteria into
encapsulated forms by growing the nonencapsulated cells in a culture containing an
extract made from dead encapsulated cells. The transformed cells produced colonies of
encapsulated bacteria. Three different procedures and their results are outlined below.
Procedure I:
Exact made from dead encapsulated cells added to culture medium.
Nonencapsulated bacteria added to culture medium.
Results: Both nonencapsulated and encapsulated bacteria grow.
Procedure II:
Extract made from dead encapsulated cells treated with protein-degrading enzymes
before adding exact to culture medium.
Nonencapsulated bacteria added to culture medium.
Results: Both nonencapsulated and encapsulated bacteria grow.
Procedure III:
Extract made from dead encapsulated cells treated with DNAse (an enzyme that
selectively destroys DNA) before adding extract to culture medium.
Nonencapsulated bacteria added to culture medium.
Results: Only nonencapsulated bacteria grow.
A reasonable conclusion to draw from the results of the experiment is that
(A) DNA is the genetic material
(B) DNA replication is semiconservative
(C) DNA is a double helix
(D) DNA is translated into protein
(E) Mutation is a change in the genetic material

A

91.In the 1940's, Avery, MacCleod, and McCarty transformed nonencapsulated bacteria into
encapsulated forms by growing the nonencapsulated cells in a culture containing an
extract made from dead encapsulated cells. The transformed cells produced colonies of
encapsulated bacteria. Three different procedures and their results are outlined below.
Procedure I:
Exact made from dead encapsulated cells added to culture medium.
Nonencapsulated bacteria added to culture medium.
Results: Both nonencapsulated and encapsulated bacteria grow.
Procedure II:
Extract made from dead encapsulated cells treated with protein-degrading enzymes
before adding exact to culture medium.
Nonencapsulated bacteria added to culture medium.
Results: Both nonencapsulated and encapsulated bacteria grow.
Procedure III:
Extract made from dead encapsulated cells treated with DNAse (an enzyme that
selectively destroys DNA) before adding extract to culture medium.
Nonencapsulated bacteria added to culture medium.
Results: Only nonencapsulated bacteria grow.
What was the purpose of treating the extract with protein-degrading enzymes in
Procedure II ?
(A) To demonstrate that the transforming factor is an enzyme
(B) To demonstrate that the transforming factor is not a protein
(C) To destroy nucleic acids in the exact
(D) To destroy any capsules in the exact
(E) To prevent the extract from being contaminated by nonencapsulated bacteria

B

92.In the 1940's, Avery, MacCleod, and McCarty transformed nonencapsulated bacteria into
encapsulated forms by growing the nonencapsulated cells in a culture containing an
extract made from dead encapsulated cells. The transformed cells produced colonies of
encapsulated bacteria. Three different procedures and their results are outlined below.
Procedure I:
Exact made from dead encapsulated cells added to culture medium.
Nonencapsulated bacteria added to culture medium.
Results: Both nonencapsulated and encapsulated bacteria grow.
Procedure II:
Extract made from dead encapsulated cells treated with protein-degrading enzymes
before adding exact to culture medium.
Nonencapsulated bacteria added to culture medium.
Results: Both nonencapsulated and encapsulated bacteria grow.
Procedure III:
Extract made from dead encapsulated cells treated with DNAse (an enzyme that
selectively destroys DNA) before adding extract to culture medium.
Nonencapsulated bacteria added to culture medium.
Results: Only nonencapsulated bacteria grow.
What was the purpose of treating the extract with DNAse in Procedure III ?
(A) To remove the encapsulated bacteria from the extract
(B) To serve as a positive control by demonstrating that a protein in the extract is the
transforming factor
(C) To serve as a negative control by demonstrating that transformation does not
occur without DNA
(D) To destroy any enzymes in the extract
(E) To destroy any capsules that might be in the extract

C

94.A scientist determined the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction by measuring the amount
of product formed over time. The following curve was generated from the data collected. (There is an image in your packet #93-96) 2002 test
The rate of the reaction could also be determined by
(A) measuring the change in the amount of enzyme
(B) measuring the change in the amount of substrate
(C) measuring the change in salt concentration
(D) adding more substrate
(E) adding more enzyme

B

111.A student uses restriction enzymes to cut a DNA molecule into fragments. The digested
DNA is loaded into the wells of an agarose gel and the gel is subjected to an electric
current. Upon completion of the run, the gel is stained.
The rate of migration of the DNA fragments through the agarose gel is determined by
the
(A) ratio of adenine to cytosine in the fragment
(B) presence of hydrogen bonds between base pairs
(C) length of time the electrophoresis unit is allowed to operate
(D) number of nucleotides in the fragment
(E) volume of the starting sample

D

112.A student uses restriction enzymes to cut a DNA molecule into fragments. The digested
DNA is loaded into the wells of an agarose gel and the gel is subjected to an electric
current. Upon completion of the run, the gel is stained.
Which of the following is true of the dye used to stain the fragments? (A) It increases the contrast between the agar and the DNA fragments.
(B) It must be accounted for when calculating the molecular weight of the fragments.
(C) Its charged areas interfere with the migration of the DNA.
(D) It is bonded only to the sticky ends of the fragments and can directly determine
the sequence of the DNA fragments.
(E) It gives a three-dimensional view of the structure of the DNA fragments.

A

113.A student uses restriction enzymes to cut a DNA molecule into fragments. The digested
DNA is loaded into the wells of an agarose gel and the gel is subjected to an electric
current. Upon completion of the run, the gel is stained.
The type and density of the gel are important because
(A) they influence the rate of migration of the fragments
(B) they may cause some DNA molecules to replicate
(C) some DNA nucleotides may be lost due to chemical reactions with the gel
(D) some DNA molecules may sink to the bottom and not migrate
(E) some DNA molecules may cross-link

A

114.A student uses restriction enzymes to cut a DNA molecule into fragments. The digested
DNA is loaded into the wells of an agarose gel and the gel is subjected to an electric
current. Upon completion of the run, the gel is stained.
The procedures described can be used to do all of the following EXCEPT
(A) isolate and purify certain DNA fragments
(B) synthesize novel DNA molecules
(C) study the activity of restriction enzymes
(D) calculate the size of DNA fragments
(E) identify the source of DNA material

B

5.Which of the following organelles modifies and packages for secretion the materials produced by the ribosomes?
A. The chloroplast
B. The golgi apparatus
C. the nucleus
D. the nucleolus
E. The mitochondrion

B

19.Which of the following paris of functional groups characterizes the structure of an amino acid? (These DO NOT look right see question 19 1999 test)
A. -N-H-H and -C=O-R
B. -C=O-Oh and -N-H-H
C. -C=O-OH and -C=O-R
D. -OH and -N-H-H
E. -C-O-O-H and -N-H-H

B

22.Which of the following exist as RNA surrounded by a protein coat?
A. Retrovirus
B. prion
C. Prokaryote
D. Spirochete
E. streptococcus

A

39.All of the following were likely present on the primitive Earth during the evolution of self replicating molecules EXCEPT
A. amino acids and nucleotides
B. nitrogen
C. simple carbohydrates
D. freestanding liquid water
E. an O2 rich atmosphere

E

57.Which of the following is an example of active transport across a membrane?
A. The movement of water from a nephron into the collecting duct of the kidney
B. The movement of glucose by facilitated diffusion into a liver cell
C. The movement of water from the inside of a cell into a surrounding hypertonic medium
D. The movement of Na+ into a neuron as a nerve impulse is generated
E. The movement of H+ into a thylakoid disc during photosynthesis

E

92.A. transcription
B. Translation
C. Transformation
D. Replication
E. Reverse transcription
Process in which a protein is assembled at a ribosome

B

93.A. transcription
B. Translation
C. Transformation
D. Replication
E. Reverse transcription
Process in which naked DNA is taken up by a bacterial or yeast Cell

C

94.A. transcription
B. Translation
C. Transformation
D. Replication
E. Reverse transcription
Process that results in the prodcution of cDNA from an RNA molecule

E

95.A. transcription
B. Translation
C. Transformation
D. Replication
E. Reverse transcription
Process in which RNA is produced by using a DNA

A

97.Questions 96-99 there is an image in your packet please view the 1999 test.
The scientist used restriction enzymes for what purpose in the experiment?
A. To make the plasmid small enough to transform cells
B. To make cuts in the plasmid DNA
C. To make the plasmid enter the cells
D. To enable the fragments of DNA to form covalent bonds
E. To enable the plasmid to recognize the bacterial cells

B

111.Please refer to diagram for question 111-113 1999 test
The electrophoretic separation of the pieces of DNA in each of the four samples was achieved because of differential migration of the DNA fragments in an electric field. This differential migration was caused by the
A. relative amounts of radioactivity in the DNA
B. number of cleavage points per fragment
C. size of each fragment
D. overall positive charge of each fragment
E. solubility of each fragment

C

113.Please refer to diagram for question 111-113 1999 test
Which of the following is an additional use of the gel electrophoresis technique?
A. To express a gene
B. to separate proteins in a mixture
C. to ligate DNA fragments
D. to transform E. coli
E. To amplify genes

B

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set