Chapter 16 - 1&2 - People

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Pope Leo X

during his papacy, - Rome became great center of art and learning

Petrarch

- exemplified emerging humanism - read Cicero and Vergil - deep feeling for beauty of this world - critical of medieval schoolmen because - rationalism -

Benvenuto Cellini

16th century Italian who was very gifted and talented sculptor and goldsmith

Niccolo Machiavelli

Diplomat who wrote a book that realistically analyzed politics in Renaissance Italy (The Prince). Stated rulers should be ready to use force and deceit for power

Baldassare Castiglione

wrote popular manual in which he gave advice to men and women on Renaissance ideal of good behavior

Lorenzo Valla

represented Classical scholarship at its best - criticized Cicero, Thomas Aquinas, Vulgate of St. Jerome

Giovanni Boccaccio

mirrored the spirit of the Renaissance - famous for poetry and prose - Story of ten young people who flee Florence to escape Black Death ("Decameron") - most famous work

Cosimo de Medici

Ruler of Florence - placed heavier tax responsibility on wealthier citizens, built sewers, and had streets paved

Lorenzo de Medici

"The Magnificent" - exiled people who disagreed with him - done to maintain stability - patron of artists, philosophers, writers - economy expanded

Savonarola

Dominican friar and virtual dictator of Florence - Church declared him a heretic and was burned at stake

Brunelleschi

studied ancient Roman statues and buildings - measured many ruins - believed beauty of building based upon mathematical relationship of various dimensions - designed dome of cathedral (Sante Maria Del Fiore) in Florence

Donatello

greatest sculptor of early Renaissance - most important work - "David" (first free standing nude sculpture) - bronze -

Lorenzo Ghiberti

Italian sculptor - developed techniques for three-dimensional sculpture by placing the figures closest to viewer in high relief, and those in the background in low relief

Giotto

great series of fresco(es) (paintings on wet plaster) depicting life of Saint Francis of Assissi -
1334 - appointed chief architect of Florence - placed in charge of civic and military construction

Michelangelo

preferred sculpture to painting - "thought in stone" - lived only for art - took no pleasure in money or comfort - "Pieta"

Masaccio

"Messy Tom" - real name Tomasso Guidi- first artist to paint human figures in nude - modeled figures using light and dark technique

Botticelli

burned many paintings that had "pagan" themes - later works are devoted to religious subjects - influenced by Neo-Platonism

Leonardo da Vinci

Artist that left behind many notes - designed buildings, canals, and military devices and was an artist of great talent

Pope Julius II

pope who oversaw the final construction of St. Peter's Basilica - hired Michelangelo

Raphael

leading painter of Renaissance - most noted for tranquil, sweet faced madonnas

Johannes Gutenberg

printed a complete edition of the Bible using movable metal type

Pierre Ronsard

greatest poet of French Renaissance - inspired by Petrarch, wrote sonnets on humanist themes of love, youth, and immorality

Michael de Montaigne

may have based his informal and direct style on Italian literary models

Francois Rabelais

France's most popular Renaissance author, developed personal essay

Desiderius Erasmus

"Prince of the Humanists" - writings challenged certain aspects of Church dogma

Jan van Eyck

developed technique of painting with oils

Peter Brueghel

combined Italian technique with the artistic traditions of their homelands

Albrecht Durer

artist that combined Italian technique with the artistic traditions of their homelands; painted realistic portraits, religious themes, landscapes, and scenes of daily life

Thomas More

statesman and friend of Erasmus, wrote a book that criticized the society of his day by comparing it with an ideal society - executed for refusal to recognize king as head of the Church of England

Shakespeare

most popular Renaissance playwright - English - most quoted author of all time

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