Bid Rent Theory
Suggests that because the closer to the CBD, the higher the value of the land, that only commercial enterprises can afford the land within the CBD.
The commercial center or downtown region of an urban area.
The concentration of power in one authority, usually under the command of a mayor or some other official.
Areas with a high population density that can include tens of thousands of people.
Ancient cities that saw trade as imperative to their success; many of these cities became trading posts or major ports for colonizing countries.
The system of regulating land use for business or retail structures.
The process of selling goods and services for profit.
Concentric zone model
Developed by Park, Burgess, and McKenzie in the 1920s, this model suggests that the social structure extends outwards from the CBD, meaning that the lower classes live closer to the city center, while upper classes live farther from the city center because they can afford the commute.
The process of moving away from urban areas, usually when people want to get away from traffic, crime, and pollution.
The distribution of authority from a central figure or point to other sectors in the city.
Cities that reexport goods that are brought into their borders, sending items to all areas of the globe (HK and Singapore).
Neighborhoods that are dominated by one ethnic group through its commercial establishments, community artwork, or other representations of ethnicity on the landscape.
The process of wealthy people moving into inner-city neighborhoods.
Rural areas that are set aside to prevent urban sprawl. Also prevent cities from merging together.
Grid street system
The street pattern in cities, created for ease and convenience, characterized by an east-west pattern and a north-south pattern that create a gridlike visual.
The smallest of urban settlements with a counted population.
The market area where a product, urban area, or commercial outlet has influence.
The system of land-use regulation for the production of materials.
All of the buildings and roads that make up a city.
Invasion and succession
The continued expansion of the CBD and the continual push outwards of the zones, causing the zones to rebuild their infrastructures so that areas that were once low-income residences are converted into apartments.
Cities with over 10 million people located within their metropolitan area and which have a huge sphere of influence over their surrounding areas.
Areas with over 50,000 people
The principle that development spurs more development.
Agglomerations of office buildings with facilities established for the phones, Internet, and transportation that allow the successful conduct of business, office parks allow businesses of similar structure and production to locate near each other and, therefore, experience the benefits of the area's infrastructure.
Peak land value intersection
The area with the greatest land value and commercial trade, usually located in the CBD.
An area where developers can plot out each house in the development and build the community from scratch.
Cities that specialize in the tech of a specific, more-specialized economic industry through a process of deindustrialization.
The showing of houses only in certain neighborhoods by real estate agents based on the race of the buyer.
The max distance that people are willing to travel to purchase a product or partake in a service often depending on the particular product.
The principle that relates cities' relative population sizes to their rank within a country.
The refusal of banks or other lending institutions to give loans to minorities or even whites in perceived high-risk areas.
The system of land-use regulation for housing.
The hierarchical classes that are evident within a society, such as the lower, middle and upper class, which represent the basic structure of an economy
Areas surrounding cities, generally consisting of residential districts but also possibly including numerous commercial and even industrial activities within their borders.
The minimum number of people needed to meet the needs of the industry.
An urban entity with a defined boundary but which is smaller than a city in terms of population and area.
The hiring of too many employees when there is not enough work for all of them to do, or the employment of overqualified persons in positions that do not utilize their skills.
Areas that were once considered urban areas, even though only tow or three families live there today.
Urban growth rates
The speed at which individual cities increase their population.
Urban heat island effect
The heat that cities generate as a result of having many buildings and few trees or other vegetation.
How a city deals with getting clean water to its citizens, removing dirty water and cleaning it, and then putting it back into the world's rivers and oceans.
The expansion of a city and its suburbs across surrounding rural lands.
The process by which people live and are employed in a city.
The people living in the world's cities; currently, more people than ever live in cities, partially because of the increase efficiency of agriculture.
Areas that are larger than hamlets and offer more services.
The movement of white, middle-class citizens away from the inner city to the suburbs, which are perceived to be safer and more family friendly.
Zone in transition
This area, located outside of the CBD, usually contains the slums.
A system of land-use regulation whereby cities determine where each type of economic enterprise- residential, commercial, and industrial- can be located.