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Small cell aka

Oat cell

Squamous

Most common form of bronchogenic carcinoma

Mediastioscopy

Scope inserted thru incision in neck

Mediastiotomy

Incision in chest to see if cancer spread to lymph nodes

Chemotherapy

Is using anti cancer drugs to tx small cell

Five to six

Size Difficult to see on xray

Cytology

Microscopic exam of sputum

Procedures to obtain lung tissue

Bronchoscopy needle aspiration thoracentesis thoractomy

Lg cell carcinoma

Grow rapidly early metastatic doubling time 100 days

Peripheral central lungs

Lg cell carcinoma is found here

Quitting smoking

Reduces risk one third to obe half

Radon

Second leading cause of cancer

Small cell

Aggressive cancer ,grows rapidly,mestasazize early double time 30 days

Hilar region

Small cell is found here

Symptoms advanced cancer

Sob,chest pain,hemoptysie,wheeze hoarse,chronic cough wt loss fatigue pneumonia bronchitis

Adenocarcinoma

Moderate dowry rate,metastic tendency oblong 180 days

Peripheral and central region of lunf

Adenocarcinma is found here

Squamous

Has double time 100 days And invades tissue in epithelium

Resection

Remove part of lung

Pneumectomy

Removal of all lung

Photodynamic therapy

Uses chemical injected in blood stream and absorbed by cells

Most common tx for sm cell carcinoma

Surgery

Pulmonary fibrosis

Aka ham man rich pneumoconiasis

Unknown etiology of pulmonary fibrosis is called

Sarcoidosis

Causes of palm fibrosis

Asbestos,silicosis,berylliosis,black lung coal miners siderosis

Onehun fourty

Types of pulmonary fibrosis

Pneumoconiosis

Pulmonary fibrosis caused by inhaling inorganic dust and particulate matter

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Is intertitial inflammation wo granuloma formation

Scleroderma

Is fibrosis that effects esophagus

Misc interstitial lung disease types

Good pastries,alveolar protein Lydia,chronic eosinophilia pneumonia

Signs of fibrosis

Cough,dyspnea,ground glass,irregular opaciies

Used to diagnose fibrosis

Xray,ct,MRI,pft,bronchi alveolar lavage,lung biopsy

Pulmonary fibrosis can be

Obstructive or restroctive

Tx to treat palm fibrosis

Corticosteroids,bronchodilator,antibiotic,diuretic,o2

Obstructive atelectasis

Obstructs gas flow between trachea and alveoli

Non obstructive atelectadis

Is from surgery pun thorax pl effusion paralysis ards fibrosis

Xray atelectasis

Fissure lines,shift elevated diaphragm,opacities platelike denities

Tx or telectasis

Antibiotic withdraw air or fluid is,u2,mech vent hyperinflation cpt

Two types non cell carcinoma

Squamous adenocarcinoma kg cell

Causes of obstructive atelectasis

Foreign body tumor mucus plug

Two types of cancer

Non cell small cell

Ards

A form od response failure from pulmonary injury of various xauses

Ards aka

Pump lung shock lung wet lung

Causes of ards

Pneumonia,airation narcotic od,near drowning,fat embolism,shock,fluid overload,sepsis,trauma thorax,smoke inhale,inhale tpxins,oxygen toxicity,airway burn,mech ventHemorrhagic pancreas

24-48 hrs

Ards will develop ..l.after initial illness or injury

Respirations with ards

Crackles and bronchial sounds Dyspnea,insp intercostl and suprasternal reyractions

Pawp measured with swan gantz

This is low in ards pt less than 18 mmhg

Common secondary infection with ards

Klebsiela pseudomonas staph

Ards

Usually intubation and mechanical vent,cpap,peep

If appropriate timely tx

Ards has survival rate of 60%

PTA with prolonged vent support of fio2. More than 50

Are likely to develop fibrosis

Benign

Are encapsulated Nd grow slowly

Drugs that may cause interstitial fibrosis

Anticancer

Chest assessment of ild

Pleural friction rub increased vocal fremitus
Pleural effusion honeycombing cavity formation ,granulomas,interstitial thickening

Malignant

Cause necrosis and invade tissue

With bronchogenic carcinima

There can be airway obstruction destruction of airways and alveoli and atelectasis

Brachytherapy

During a bronchoscopy if tumor found in rt man bronchus best way to manage is

Palliative therapy

Is to make pt comfortable

Mediastinal cancer

Affects swallowing and hoarseness weakness bone pain seizure and wt loss

Abnormalities in lungs with ards

Abnormal surfactant,interstitial edema

Ards anaomic alterations are similar to someone with

Hyaline membrane disease

Vent strategy with ards

Small tidal volume high rr

Ph goal ards

7.2

Breathing high percent of u2 with a block in left bronchus

Can lead to atelectasis

Atelectasis chest assessment

Increase tactile fremitus,dull note,crackle,bronchial sounds,whisperednpectoriloquy

Pft of atelectasis

Decreaase ic,decrease vc

Found in alveoli of ards pt

Debri,fibrin,hyaline membrane

Alveolar cells on prolonged ards pt

Hyperplasia and swelling of type 2 cells

Burns septicemia and hemorrhagic pancreatitis

Can lead to ards

Ards pt with alveolar consolidation and atelectasis should be treated with

Cpap,peep

Clinical manifestations of ards

Low or norm pul cap wedge pressure,tachycardia,intercostal retractions,cyanosis

Interstitial lung disease and asbestosis have

Pleural plaques,secretions,bronchospasm

Some Interstitial lung diseases

Asbestosis,sarcoidosis,silicosis

Interstitial lung disese can be caused by

Anticancer drugs

Interstitial lung disease sclerosis affects

Skin, lungs

High risk interstitial Lung disease sarcoidosis

African American women,20-30 age

Interstitial LNG disease chest assessment

Pleural friction rub,increased vocal fremitus

Coal workers interstitial lung disease aka

Pneumoconiosis,silicosis

Benign tumors

Grow slowly,are encapsulated

Malignant tumors

Invade surrounding tissues,cause necrosis

Structural damage in bronchogenic carcinoma

Airway obstruction,destruction of airways and alveoli,atelectasis

Non small cell cancer types

Lg cell,squamous,adenocarcinoma

Lobectmy

Removal of whole lobe

Best way to manage tu or in rt main bronchus during scope

Brachytherapy

Palliative care

Treat symptoms make comfy

Signs of metastatic cancer

Weakness,bone pain,seizures,wt loss

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