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A physiologist is a biologistis who studies

The function of bodyParts

An organ system consists of

Organs that collectively perform a vital body function

Which of the following is an example of a tissue

Heart muscle

Stratified squamous epithelium is well suited for

Lining body surfaces subject to abrasion

Which of the following items has a shape most like a squamous epithelial cell

A fried egg

The liquid part of the blood that consists of water, salts, and dissolved Proteins is know as

Plasma

Which of the following is a type of connective tissue

Adipose tissue

Connective tissue is different from the other major tissues in that

The cells are sparsely scattered through nonliving matrix

Smooth muscle is responsible for

Involuntary body activities

Which of the following statements regarding skeletal muscle is true

Skeletal muscle is attached to bones by tendons

Unlike both smooth and skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle

Has branched cells

Which type of tissues forms a communication and coordination system within the body

Nervous

The structural and functional unit of nervous tissues is the

Neuron

Which of the following tissues would likely be found in the small intestine

Cardiac muscle

Based on your understanding of homeostasis, for negative feedback control of blood glucose levels to function properly

There must be sensors that monitor blood glucose levels

If haven't eaten for several days which hormone would be responsible for returning your glucose levels to the set point

Glucagon

The respiratory system includes all of the following structures expect the

Esophagus

Which organ system removes nitrogen containing watse products from blood

Excretory system

Fingernails are a component of the______ system

Integumentary

Which of the following is a part of the immune system

Bone Marrow

Which of the following imaging techniques is best suited for visualizing fine anatomic detail in the brain

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Which of the following imaging techniques is best suited for visualizing areas of high or low metabolic activity

Positron emission tomography (PET)

Assume you have scratched a mosquito bite and in the process damaged some of your stratified squamous epithelial cells. What will happen

The cells near the base of the epithelium replicate to replace the damaged cells

Which of the following best represents an adaption to increase Surface to volume ratio

The multi lobed sacs of an earthworm

Cells receive material such as food, minerals, and oxygen from the outside world through

Interstitial fluid

Imagine an invertebrate that lives in an estuary where salinity varies cyclically with the tides. If this individual is able to adjust the salt concentration of it's body fluids, it's salt concentration will have

Slight functions that are kept within a narrow range

The vertebrate kidney helps to keep the acidity of the body fluids constant by varying the amount of hydrogen ions it secretes into the urine. You can confidently predict that this aspect of kidney function will be controlled by

A negative feedback mechanism

When body temperature is too high which of the following occurs

Blood vessels in the skin dilate

Digestion is the

Chemical and mechanical breakdown of food for absorption into the body

What happens to nutrient macromolecules in an animals digestive tract

Nutrient macromolecules are digested into monomers before absorption

Through digestion carbohydrates are broken down into

Monosaccharides

Which of the following choices lists the organs of the bird digestive system In the correct order from first to last contact with food material

Esophagus, crop, stomach, gizzard, intestine, anus

Which of the following correctly lists the order of the parts of the human digestive system, from first to last contact with food matter

Oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

The reason animals need a continuous supply of oxygen is to

Obtain energy from their food

In the final phase of respiration body cells

Release co2 and take up o2

Animals that effectively use their body surface for gas exchange must

Have a high ratio of body surface area to volume

Which of the following statements regarding breathing and circulation is false

The circulatory system of insects is not involved in transporting oxygen

Which of the following animals requires the largest and most complex lungs proportional to it's overall body size

Bear

Which of the following options correctly lists the direction of carbon dioxide travel as it leaves the body

Alveoli, bronchioles, bronchi, trachea, larynx, pharynx

Why do cigarette smokers cough more than nonsmokers

Cigarette smoker hames the cilia that normally move debris out of the lungs and coughing is the remaining way to clean the lungs

When you are breathing normally exhalation results mainly from

The relaxation of the chest muscles and diaphragm

When you hold your breath which of the following blood gas changes leads initially to the urge to breathe again

Rising carbon dioxide concentration

Which of the following contributes to gas exchange in the human fetus

High oxygen levels maintained in the amniotic fluid by the placenta

Which of the following statements regarding circulatory systems is trye

A circulatory system is necessary in any animal whose body is too large or too complex for vital chemicals to reach all parts of the body by diffusion

Which of the following is a function of the circulatory system

Transporting nutrients to body cells

Which of the following animals has a single circuit of blood flow and two heart chambers

Salmon

Which of the following statements about mammalian circulatory systems is false

The left side of a mammals heart sends blood to the lungs

In mammals blood returning from the head will pass through the _____ just before entering the right atrium

Superior vena cava

The largest blood vessel in the human body is the

Aorta

During ventricular systole the _____ valves ______

Semilunar.... Open

The location of the hearts pacemaker is a specialized region of cardiac muscle is called

Sinoatrial node

The main function of the AV node is to

Relay a signal for the ventricles to contact

Myocardial infarction also called a heart attack

Results from the death of cardiac cells

Which blood vessels have the thinnest walls

Capillaries

Blood flow through capillaries is controlled by

Precapillary sphincters

Which of the following cells are phagocytes

Monocytes and neutrophils

What type of blood vessel is solely responsible for exchange between the blood and the interstitial fluid

Capillary

How long do human red blood cells circulate in the blood before they wear out and have to be replaced

3-4 months

Blood clots are formed by platelets and the plasma protein

Fibrinogen

Multipotent stem cells

Can differentiate into all blood cells and platelets

The epstein-Barr virus causes the symptoms of mononucleosis by

Infecting B cells and weakening the immune system

The bodys innate defense against infection include

Barriers such as dead skin cells and mucus

Which of the following wander through the interstitial fluid eating any bacteria and virus infected cells they encounter

Macrophages

What substance produced by virus infected cells diffused to neighboring cells to help them fight a viral infection

Interferon

When you cut yourself the damaged cells immediately release chemical alarm signals such as

Histamine

The major result of the inflammatory response is to

Initiate cell-mediated immune responses

The two main functions of the lymphatic are

Returning tissue fluid to the circulatory system and fighting infections

A substance that can elicit an immune response is called

An antigen

Antibodies are

Proteins

One kind of vaccine consists of

Horse erythrocytes

Which of the following cell types is responsible for humoral immunity

B cells

Which of the following statements about humoral immunity is true

Humoral immunity plays a major role in protecting the body from cancerous cells

Which of the following cell types is responsible for cell mediated immunity

B cells

The immune system is capable of mounting specific responses to particular microorganisms because

The Body contains an enormous diversity of lymphocytes, each with the ability to respond to a different antigen

When a B cell first interacts with it's particular antigen, the B cell

Differentiates and develops into a clone of antibody producing cells

Which of the following choices best describes a plasma cell

It is a differentiated B cell

The secondary immune response occurs when memory cells bind to

Antigens

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