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The Human Body: An Orientation

Directly causes mechanical motion

Muscular system

Responds to environmental changes by transmitting electrical impulses

Nervous system

Provides support and levers for muscles to work on

Skeletal system

Protects underlying organs from mechanical damage

Integumentary system

Controls the body with chemical molecules called hormones

Endocrine system

Delivers oxygen and nutrients to the tissues

Cardiovascular system

Produces antibodies that neutralize foreign substances

Immune system

Removes and filters excess fluid from tissues

Lymphatic system

Feedback mechanism:
Blood glucose levels

Negative feedback

Feedback mechanism:
Blood pressure

Negative feedback

Feedback mechanism:
Blood clotting

Positive feedback

Feedback mechanism:
Delivering a baby

Positive feedback

Systems and organs:
Arteries, veins, heart

Cardiovascular

Systems and organs:
Trachea, bronchi, alveoli

Respiratory

Systems and organs:
Adrenal glands, pancreas, pituitary

Endocrine

Systems and organs:
Esophagus, large intestine, rectum

Digestive

Systems and organs:
Kidneys, bladder, ureters

Urinary

Cavities and organs:
Stomach

Abdominopelvic

Cavities and organs:
Heart

Thoracic

Cavities and organs:
Uterus

Abdominopelvic

Cavities and organs:
Brain

Cranial

Cavities and organs:
Lungs

Thoracic

Regional terms and common terms:
Arm

Brachial

Regional terms and common terms:
Buttock

Gluteal

Regional terms and common terms:
Head

Cephalic

Regional terms and common terms:
Knee (anterior aspect)

Patellar

Regional terms and common terms:
Chest

Thoracic

The bridge of the nose is _______ to the left eye

Medial

The upper arm is ________ to the forearm

Proximal

The heart is ________ to the stomach

Superior

The fingers are _________ to the wrist

Distal

The stomach is _________ to the spine

Anterior

Positive feedback mechanisms tend to increase the original stimulus

True

Imaging is useful in discovering obstructed blood supplies in organs and tissues

True

The anatomical position means the body is standing at attention with the palms facing forward and the thumbs pointing away from the body

True

The elbow is proximal to the shoulder

False

The serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity wall is called the visceral peritoneum

False

A major function of serous membranes is to decrease friction

True

The right hypochondriac region contains the majority of the stomach

False

Lungs carry out an excretory function

True

Embryology concerns the structural changes that occur in an individual from conception through old age

False

A tissue consists of groups of similar cells that have a common function

True

It is important for any organism to maintain its boundaries, so that its internal environment remains distinct from the external environment surrounding it

True

Without some sort of negative feedback mechanism, it would be impossible to keep our body chemistry in balance

True

Regardless of the variable being regulated, all homeostatic control mechanisms have at least three interdependent components

True

The epigastric region is located superior to the umbilical region

True

Histology would be best defined as a study of

Tissues

The study of the heart may incorporate many aspects of anatomy but as a whole you would say it is _________ anatomy.

Systemic

An increased rate of breathing as a result of an increased buildup of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream would be best described as an example of ________

Excretion of metabolic waste

Average body temperature is ________ degrees centigrade

37

If you consider your home air conditioner in terms of homeostasis, then the wall thermostat would be the _______

Control center

What is the main, general purpose of negative feedback?

To maintain homeostasis

What is the specific name for the hip region?

Coxal

An oblique cut is one that is cut

Diagonally between the vertical and horizontal

The heart lies in the _______ cavity

Pericardial

The cavities housing the eyes are called ______ cavities

Orbital

A structure that is composed of two or more tissues would be a(n)

Organ

________ cavities are spaces within joints

Synovial

Which of the following would not be a functional characteristic of life?

Decay

Which term means toward or at the back of the body, behind?

Dorsal

The single most abundant chemical substance of the body, accounting for 60% to 80% of body weight is ________

Water

What is the posterior side of the patella called?

Popliteal

Which of the following statements is true concerning feedback mechanisms?
A. Positive feedback mechanisms always result in excessive damage to the host
B. Negative feedback mechanisms tend to increase the original stimulus
C. Negative feedback mechanisms work to prevent sudden severe changes within the body
D. Blood glucose levels are regulated by positive feedback mechanisms

Negative feedback mechanisms work to prevent sudden severe changes within the body

The anatomical position is characterized by all of the following except
A. Body erect
B. Arms at sides
C. Palms turned posteriorly
D. Thumbs pointed laterally

Palms turned posteriorly

A good example of a positive feedback mechanism would be
A. Body temperature regulation
B. Regulating glucose levels in the blood
C. Enhancement of labor contractions
D. Blood calcium level regulation

Enhancement of labor contractions

Which of the following describes a parasagittal plane?
A. A transverse cut just above the knees
B. Two cuts dividing the body into left and right halves
C. Any sagittal plane except the median
D. Any cut dividing the body into anterior and posterior

Any sagittal plane except the median

Which of the following organs or structures would be found in the left iliac region?

Intestines

The parietal pleural would represent a serous membrane ________
A. Covering individual lungs
B. Lining the thoracic cavity
C. Covering the heart
D. Lining the abdominal cavity

Lining the thoracic cavity

Which one of the following systems responds to environmental stimuli?
A. Muscular
B. Lymphatic
C. Immune
D. Nervous

Nervous

Choose the anatomical topic and definition that is not correctly matched
A. Gross anatomy: study of structures visible to the eye
B. Microscopic anatomy: study of structures too small to be seen by the naked eye
C. Cytology: study of structures in a particular region
D. Embryology: study of the changes in an individual from conception to birth

Cytology: study of structures in a particular region

Homeostasis is the condition in which the body maintains _________
A. The lowest possible energy usage
B. A relatively stable internal environment, within limits
C. A static state with no deviation from preset points
D. A dynamic state within an unlimited range

A relatively stable internal environment, within limits

In which cavities are the lungs located?
A. Pleural, ventral, and thoracic
B. Mediastinum, thoracic, and ventral
C. Pleural, dorsal, and abdominal
D. Pericardial, ventral, and thoracic

Pleural, ventral, and thoracic

Choose the following statement that is not completely correct regarding serous membranes
A. Serosa are very thin, double-layered structures
B. Serous membranes are divided into parietal and visceral membranes with a potential space between the two
C. Visceral pericardium covers the surface of the heart, and parietal pericardium lines the walls of the heart
D. Serous membranes secrete a watery lubricating fluid

Visceral pericardium covers the surface of the heart, and parietal pericardium lines the walls of the heart

Place the following in correct sequence from simplest to most complex
1. Molecules
2. Atoms
3. Tissues
4. Cells
5. Organ

2-1-4-3-5

Which of the following imaging devices would best localize a tumor in a person's brain?

MRI

Which of these is not part of the dorsal cavity?
A. Cranial cavity
B. Thoracic cavity
C. Spinal cord
D. Vertebral cavity

Thoracic cavity

In which abdominopelvic cavity is the stomach located?
A. Right upper
B. Right lower
C. Left upper
D. Left lower

Left upper

Which of the following statements is the most correct regarding homeostatic imbalance?
A. It is considered the cause of most diseases
B. The internal environment is becoming more stable
C. Positive feedback mechanisms are overwhelmed
D. Negative feedback mechanisms are functioning normally

It is considered the cause of most diseases

Subdivisions of anatomy include which of the following?
A. Gross, macroscopic, visual and microscopic
B. Gross, regional, dissection, and surface
C. Regional, surface, visual, and microscopic
D. Gross, regional, systemic, and surface

Gross, regional, systemic, and surface

The term pollex refers to the _______

Thumb

The dorsal body cavity is the site of which of the following?
A. Intestines
B. Brain
C. Lungs
D. Liver

Brain

Select the most correct statement
A. The immune system is closely associated with the lymphatic system
B. Organ systems operate independently of each other to maintain life
C. The endocrine system is not a true structural organ system
D. Organ systems can be composed of cells or tissues, but not both

The immune system is closely associated with the lymphatic system

One of the functional characteristics of life is irritability. This refers to ________
A. Indigestible food residues stimulating the excretory system
B. Sensing changes in the environment and then reacting or responding to them
C. The nervous system causing all living things to sometimes experience anger
D. The necessity for all organisms to reproduce

Sensing changes in the environment and then reacting or responding to them

Which of the following are survival needs of the body?
A. Nutrients, water, movement, and reproduction
B. Nutrients, water, growth, reproduction
C. Water, atmospheric pressure, growth, and movement
D. Nutrients, water, atmospheric pressure, and oxygen

Nutrients, water, atmospheric pressure, and oxygen

The anatomical position is used ________

As a standard reference point for directional terms regardless of the actual position of the body

What is a vertical section through the body dividing it into right and left called?

Sagittal

What is a vertical section through the body dividing it into anterior and posterior regions?

Frontal

Which body cavity protects the nervous system?

Dorsal

Which of the following describes the operation of the heart and blood vessels?

Cardiovascular physiology

Similar cells that have a common function are called

Tissues

What does the "principle of complementarity of structures and function" mean?

What a structure can do depends on its specific form, or "structure determines function"

The term that describes the back of the elbow is

Olecranal

The term that describes the heel region is

Calcaneal

The elbow is __________ to the wrist

Proximal

The _____________ cavity contains timy bones that transmit sound vibrations to the organ of hearing in the inner ear

Middle ear

__________ is explained by chemical and physical principles and is concerned with the function of specific organs or organ systems

Physiology

What is a dynamic equilibrium of your internal environment termed?

Homeostasis

Which cavity contains the bladder, some reproductive organs, and the rectum?

Pelvic

What is the serous membrane that covers the intestines called?

Visceral

_________ physiology concerns urine production and kidney function

Renal

What broad term covers all chemical reactions that occur within the body cells?

Metabolism

What is the function of the serous membrane?

They act to reduce friction and allow the organs to slide across cavity walls

Fully describe the anatomical position for the body

They body is erect, arms hanging at the sides, palms forward, and thumbs pointed away from the midline

What does gross anatomy study?

Larger structures of the body that can be seen with the naked eye

Can lungs carry out excretory functions?

Yes
Carbon dioxide is a metabolic waste the lungs excrete

The higher we go in the mountains, the greater the atmospheric pressure, which causes a loss of oxygen. Comment on this statement

The statement is backwards
The higher we go, the less atmospheric pressure, therefore less oxygen

Why is anatomical terminology necessary?

Anatomical terms are precise words that have limited usage, which prevents confusion when describing the location of body parts

The five cavities of the head are cranial, oral, nasal, middle ear, and ___________

Orbital

The ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them is called

Responsiveness or irritability

What is the single most abundant chemical substance in the body?

Water

Why must a normal body temperature be maintained in order for chemical reactions to be continued at a life sustainining rates?

If body temperature is too low, chemical reactions slow and eventually stop. If body temperature is too high, chemical reactions speed up and body proteins lose their normal shape, resulting in loss of function

What is the pathway between the receptor and the control center in the reflex pathway called?

Afferent pathway

What type of homeostatic feedback reflex is the withdrawal reflex?

Negative

Why are the abdominopelvic cavity organs the most vulnerable in an automobile accident?

The walls of the abdominal cavity are formed only by trunk muscles and are not reinforced by bone. The pelvic organs receive a somewhat greater degree of protection

What is the goal of all the negative feedback mechanisms of the body?

The goal is to prevent sudden severe changes within the body

Which feedback mechanism causes the variable to deviate further and further from its original value or range?

Positive feedback

What can happen when the usual negative feedback mechanisms are overwhelmed and destructive positive feedback mechanisms take over?

Homeostatic imbalances increase our risk for illness and produce the changes we associate with aging

Which body system would be most affected by a lower than normal atmospheric pressure?

Respiratory system

A small family was traveling in its van and had a minor accident. The children in the back seats were wearing lap belts, but still sustained numerous bruises about the abdomen, and had some internal organ injuries. Why is this area more vulnerable to damage than others?

The abdominal organs are the least protected in the body because they are not surrounded by a bony covering such as the ribs, pelvis, or cranium

A surgeon removed a section of tissue along a transverse plane for microscopic examination. What two names would the section be called?

A cross section or a transverse section

Judy is 16 years old and collapses on the gym floor with severe pain in her chest wall. She is rushed by ambulance to the emergency room. Judy is diagnosed with pleurisy and is given an anti-inflammatory through intravenous route. Explain why an anti-inflammatory would be prescribed for someone with pleurisy.

The pleural space contains a small amount of fluid that acts as a lubricant, alllowing pleurae to slide smoothly over each other as the lungs expand and contract. Pleurisy is an inflammation of the prietal pleura of the lungs. When inflammation occurs in the pleural space, the pleurae do not slide smoothly and this causes severe pain

Explain why an 80 year old woman requires a much longer time to recover from the flu than does a woman who is age 30

As we age, our body['s control systems become less efficient. As a result, our internal environment becomes less and less stable

The nurse charted: "Patient has an open wound located on lateral aspect of leg." Describe where the wound is located

The wound is located on the outer side of the leg

The patient was admitted to the hospital with hypertension. They development of arteriosclerosis has increased peripheral resistance to blood flow, worsening his hypertension. This is an example of what type of feedback loop and why?

Positive feedback loops are common in pathophysiological perpetuationof disease. For example, arteriosclerotic hypertension results in positive feedback mechanisms that enhance and propagate the initial step in the chain of events, which is hypertension

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