AP Biology Review - The Chemistry of Life

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AP Biology questions to review! The Chemistry of Life

AP Biology Review

Chapter 1 - The Chemistry of Life

1. Inorganic Compound

A. Protein
B. Lipid
C. Nucleic acid
D. Carbohydrate
E. Water

E

2. Contains peptide bonds

A. Protein
B. Lipid
C. Nucleic acid
D. Carbohydrate
E. Water

A

3. Synthesized in the rough ER

A. Protein
B. Lipid
C. Nucleic acid
D. Carbohydrate
E. Water

A

4. Used for thermal insulation in mammals

A. Protein
B. Lipid
C. Nucleic acid
D. Carbohydrate
E. Water

B

5. Includes glycogen, chitin, and starch

A. Protein
B. Lipid
C. Nucleic acid
D. Carbohydrate
E. Water

D

6. Contains ribose or deoxyribose and phosphate

A. Protein
B. Lipid
C. Nucleic acid
D. Carbohydrate
E. Water

C

7. Main constituent of cell membranes

A. Protein
B. Lipid
C. Nucleic acid
D. Carbohydrate
E. Water

B

8. Information storage in the cell

A. Protein
B. Lipid
C. Nucleic acid
D. Carbohydrate
E. Water

C

9. Cholesterol

A. Protein
B. Lipid
C. Nucleic acid
D. Carbohydrate
E. Water

B

10. Used for electrical insulation in vertebrates axons

A. Protein
B. Lipid
C. Nucleic acid
D. Carbohydrate
E. Water

B

11. Polymer containing five-carbon sugars

A. Protein
B. Lipid
C. Nucleic acid
D. Carbohydrate
E. Water

C

12. Synthesized at the ribosome

A. Protein
B. Lipid
C. Nucleic acid
D. Carbohydrate
E. Water

A

13. Incluses ribose, deoxyribose, glucose, and maltose

A. Protein
B. Lipid
C. Nucleic acid
D. Carbohydrate
E. Water

D

14. Most abundant molecule in the cell

A. Protein
B. Lipid
C. Nucleic acid
D. Carbohydrate
E. Water

E

15. Found in both fatty acids and amino acid backbones

A. R-OH
B. R-COOH
C. R-NH2
D. R-CHO
E. R-CO-R'

B

16. Alcohol

A. R-OH
B. R-COOH
C. R-NH2
D. R-CHO
E. R-CO-R'

A

17. Found in both urea and amino acid backbones

A. R-OH
B. R-COOH
C. R-NH2
D. R-CHO
E. R-CO-R'

C

18. Acetaldehyde and Formaldehyde

A. R-OH
B. R-COOH
C. R-NH2
D. R-CHO
E. R-CO-R'

D

19. Present only in proteins composed of multiple polypeptides

A. Primary Structure
B. Secondary Structure
C. Tertiary Structure
D. Quaternary Structure
E. Nucleotide Sequence

D

20. Primarily determined by hydrogen bonding between amino acid backbones

A. Primary Structure
B. Secondary Structure
C. Tertiary Structure
D. Quaternary Structure
E. Nucleotide Sequence

B

21. Amino acids in a specific order linked together by peptide bonds

A. Primary Structure
B. Secondary Structure
C. Tertiary Structure
D. Quaternary Structure
E. Nucleotide Sequence

A

22. Directly determines the function of a single polypeptide

A. Primary Structure
B. Secondary Structure
C. Tertiary Structure
D. Quaternary Structure
E. Nucleotide Sequence

C

23. Ultimately determines the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide

A. Primary Structure
B. Secondary Structure
C. Tertiary Structure
D. Quaternary Structure
E. Nucleotide Sequence

E

24. All of the following statements are true regarding water except

A. Water is a polar,bent molecule
B. Water contains two polar, covalent bonds
C. Hydrogen bonds are the only bonds broken when water evaporates
D. Water can form hydrogen bonds with itself
E. Solid water (ice) is denser than liquid water

E

25.The properties of water are directly attributable to all of the following except

A. It is polar
B. It has the ability to form hydrogen bonds
C. Its molecular shape is bent
D. It is organic
E. It is both cohesive and adhesive

D

26. All of the following are true regarding the solubility of gases except

A. Carbon dioxide and oxygen are not very soluble in water
B. Carbon dioxide gas reacts with water to form carbonic acid when dissolved in water
C. Oxygen gas is nonpolar
D. The solubility of oxygen and carbon dioxide increases with increasing water temperature
E. Carbonic anhydrase and hemoglobin are two proteins that increase the solubility of carbon dioxide and oxygen, respectively, in humans

D

27. All of the following were probably present in the early atmosphere of Earth except

A. Hydrogen (H2)
B. Carbon monoxide (CO)
C. Carbon dioxide (CO2)
D. Nitrogen (N2)
E. Oxygen (O2)

E

28. Protein synthesis always produces which of the following as a product?

A. Ammonia
B. ATP
C. Carbon Dioxide
D. Water
E. Urea

D

29. Egg whites contain large amounts of the protein albumin, which looks clear when uncooked eggs are opened. Cooking the whites at high temperatures changes the structure of the albumin, turning the "whites" white. Which of the following terms correctly identifies this process?

A. Hydrolysis
B. Saturation
C. Synthesis
D. Posttranslational modification
E. Denaturation

E

30. Which of the following are differences between proteins and nucleic acids?
I. Proteins contain sulfur; nucleic acids do not
II. Proteins contain phosphate; nucleic acids do not
III. Proteins contain oxygen; nucleic acids do not

A. I only
B. II only
C. III only
D. I and II only
E. I, II, and III

A

31. A starch molecule is formed from monosaccharides. All of the following are true except

A. Glucose was polymerized, and water molecules were formed
B. Amylase did not catalyze this reaction
C. The reactants (substrates) are water soluble
D. A larger molecule was made from smaller molecules
E. This process could have happened in a muscle cell

E

32. Glycogen and cellulose synthesis always produce which of the following as products?

A. Glucose
B. Water
C. ATP
D. Carbon dioxide
E. Oxygen

B

33. Which of the following accurately describes the chemical reaction A + B -> AB + energy?

A. Endothermic
B. Exergonic
C. Hydrolysis
D. Dehydration
E. Catabolic

B

34. Which of the following molecules contains the greatest amount of net usable energy per gram for a typical mammal?

A. Cholesterol
B. Triglyceride
C. Protein
D. Ethanol
E. Starch

B

35. Molecule M binds to enzyme E at a binding site that is not the active site, and as a result, the enzyme's activity decreases. All of the following are true regarding this observation except

A. Molecule M is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme
B. This is one mechanism of feedback inhibition
C. Upon binding, molecule M may have caused the enzyme's structure to change in a way that reduced the enzyme's ability to bind to it's substrate
D. Molecule M is an allosteric inhibitor of the enzyme
E. Molecule M is likely to be a product of the pathway of which enzyme E is a part

A

36. Which of the following has both a hydrophobic portion and a hydrophilic portion?

A. Starch
B. Phospholipids
C. Proteins
D. Steroids
E. Chitin

B

37. A solution that has a pH of 2 is how many times more acidic than one with a pH of 5?

A. 2
B. 5
C. 10
D. 100
E. 1000

E

38. Which of the following will least affect the effectiveness of an enzyme?

A. Temperature
B. pH
C. Concentration of substrate
D. Concentration of enzyme
E. Original activation energy of system

E

39. An amino acid contains which of the following functional groups?

A. Carboxyl group and amino group
B. Carbonyl group and amino group
C. Hydroxyl group and amino group
D. Carboxyl group and hydroxyl group
E. Carbonyl group and carboxyl group

A

40. All of the following are carbohydrates except

A. starch
B. glycogen
C. chitin
D. glycerol
E. cellulose

D

41. Which of the following best describes the relationship between enzyme activity and temperature?

A. Enzyme activity always increases with increasing temperature
B. Higher temperatures typically increase enzyme activity by lowering the activation energy of the reaction
C. Higher temperatures increase enzyme activity by increasing the number of activated complexes that form each minute
D. Low temperatures can denature enzymes by freezing them
E. Enzymes are activated allosterically at certain temperatures, but excessively high heat may destroy them by denaturation

C

42. Which of the following statements best describes enzymes?

A. They are present in the nucleus during eukaryotic DNA replication
B. They are made of amino acids
C. Their collective action regulates the metabolism of the cell
D. Many enzymes can be activated or inactivated by the presence or absence of specific hormones
E. All of the above are correct statements about enzymes

E

43. Which of the following best explains why different enzymes work best at different pH's?

A. Different enzymes are made from different amino acids
B. The three-dimensional folding of an enzyme is affected but the concentration of hydrogen ions in its environment
C. Enzymes that are present at low pH's work best at low pH's
D. Cells change their pH to regulate enzyme activity
E. Enzymes can increase or decrease the pH of a cell to become active or inactive

B

44. Which statement most accurately describes the nature of the pH scale?

A. A pH of 14 is the most acidic, and a pH of 0 is the least acidic
B. A pH of 14 is twice as acidic as a pH of 7
C. A pH of 14 is twice as basic as a pH of 7
D. A pH of 5 is 100 times more acidic than a pH of 7
E. A pH of 5 is 100 times more basic than a pH of 7

D

45. In the mitochondrial electron transport chain, protons are pumped into the inter membrane space. This would cause the pH of the inter membrane space to

A. increase due to an increase in hydrogen ion concentration
B. decrease due to an increase in hydrogen ion concentration
C. increase due to a decrease in hydrogen ion concentration
D. decrease due to a decrease in hydrogen ion concentration
E. not change because pH is related to hydrogen ion concentration, not proton concentration

B

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