a type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one pair of valence electrons
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
what is the charge on a molecule?
a molecule that consists of two atoms of the same element
a compound consisting of molecules of covalently bonded atoms
Molecular compounds have higher or lower boiling points than ionic compounds?
Molecular compounds have higher or lower melting points than ionic compounds?
shows the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a "molecular compound"
the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a molecule.
The arrangement of atoms determined by the number of bonded electron pairs and the number of "lone electron pairs" around the central atom in a molecule.
to get an octet (8 valence electrons)
Why do atoms share electrons?
single covalent bond
a bond formed when two atoms share 1 pair of electrons
indicates the types, number, arrangement, and bonds BUT not the unshared pairs of the atoms in a molecule
two sets of shared electrons
coordinate covalent bonds
the type of bond when both of the electrons in a covalent bond are "donated" by the same atom, such as in Ammonium (NH4)
a group of 2 or more atoms that are covalently bonded and have a net charge
a structure that occurs when it is possible to draw two or more valid electron dot structures that have the same number of electron pairs for a molecule or ion
total valence electrons is an odd # (NO2 has 17 valence electrons)
when is it impossible to satisfy the octet rule?
orbitals that apply to the entire molecule
a molecular orbital that can be occupied by two electrons of a covalent bond
a bond formed when two atomic orbitals combine to form a molecular orbital that is symmetrical around the axis connecting the two atomic nuclei
A covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are most likely to be found in sausage-shaped regions above and below the bond axis of the bonded atoms
Is a sigma bond or a pi bond stronger?
orbitals have less overlap
why are pi bonds weaker?
the theory that states: repulsion between electron pairs forms shapes that allow electron pairs to stay as far apart as possible
the mixing of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new orbitals of equal energies
a bond angle of 109.5° that results when a central atom forms four bonds directed toward the center of a regular tetrahedron
nonpolar covalent bond
covalent bond where electrons are shared equally
polar covalent bond
A covalent bond between atoms that differ in Electronegativity. The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive
molecule in which opposite ends have opposite electric charges
a pair of equal and opposite electric charges or magnetic poles separated by a small distance
van der waals forces
a slight attraction that develops between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules.
occur when polar molecules are attracted to one another
The weakest molecular interactions caused by the motions of electrons.
bond created by the weak attraction of a slightly positive hydrogen atom to a slightly negative portion of another molecule
solids in which all of the atoms are covalently bonded to each other