complex molecules organized around skeletons of carbon atoms arranged in rings or chains; includes biomolecules molecules synthesized by living organisms.
chemical compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen atoms
the chain of carbon atoms in an organic molecule
a compound that exists in forms having different arrangements of atoms but the same molecular weight
atoms attached to the carbon skeleton that participate in chemical reactions
attracted to water
the monovalent group -OH in such compounds as bases and some acids and alcohols
an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of a carbon atom linked to a double bond to an oxygen atom
A functional group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.
a compund that contains the -COOH functional group
A functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; can act as a base in solution, accepting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of +1.
organic compounds with an amino group
joined molecules that joined in complex ways to make larger molecules
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds
an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals
single sugar molecules
a sugar formed from two monosaccharides
large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides
a complex carbohydrate found chiefly in seeds, fruits, tubers, roots and stem pith of plants, notably in corn, potatoes, wheat, and rice
one form in which body fuel is stored
a polysaccharide that is the chief constituent of all plant tissues and fibers
fats and oils
lacking affinity for water
a soft greasy substance occurring in organic tissue and consisting of a mixture of lipids (mostly triglycerides)
glyceride occurring naturally in animal and vegetable tissues
(of color) not chromatically pure
being the most concentrated solution possible at a given temperature
the molecules that form much of the cell membrane
on fatty acid linked to an alcohol, they are more hydrophobic than fats
A type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached.
synthetic chemicals that are similar to hormones produced in the body
any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells
type of protein found in all living things that changes the rate of chemical reaction.
organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group
the primary linkage of all protein structures
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
loss of normal shape of a protein due to heat or other factor
DNA and RNA
(biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix
(biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
los tres, Basic units of DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of 4 DNA bases
a functional group consisting of a phosphorus atom covalently bonded to four oxygen atoms
adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
a pair of parallel helices intertwined about a common axis