Bioethics final

Created by teresajm101 

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Gamete

Only haploid chromosome,sperm and egg

Homologous

Each diplod cell has two sets of chromosomes therefore two of each type of chromosome

Gene

A segment of DNA that codes for a particular protein and determine a particular function or trait of heredity

Chromosome

XX-female, XY-male, made up of DNA, linear or thread like structure found in the nucleaus of eukaryotic organisms, found during cell division

Autosome

Chromosome pairs of 1-22, regular chromosome that does not determine the sex of the individual,karyotype has 44 of these

Karyotype

A picture of someone's chromosomes

Allele

Different forms a gene can take

Sex chromosome

23 pairs of chromosomes X&Y, female=xx male=XY, x carries more Genes then y

Haploid

Having a single set of unpaired chromosomes

Meiosis

Converts diploid cells Into haploid, process in which gametes are made

Recombinant

DNA Molecules produced by combining DNA from different sources

Fertilization

Egg+sperm=diploid(gametes or germ cells) sperm determines sex of the offspring, chromosome number changes 2n->n

Mitosis

Produces diploid somatic cells, Chromosome number stays the same 2n->2n

Diploid

Two sets of chromosomes, haploid+haploid=diploid (2n)

Gene locus

Location of a chromosome

Somatic cell

220 sets of different gamete, any diploid cell in the body

Genome

A genes hereditary information

Mutation

A change/error in the genetic material; sources of new alleles
Substitution and frame shift

Enzyme

Speed up chemical reaction, most end in "ase"

Protein

Long chains of amino acids connected by peptide bonds

Amino acids

Organic molecules that have a carboxyl group and amino group, From bonds with one another

Eugenics

Similar genes being created in one population so everyone is the same

Transformation

During this a cell takes DNA from outside the cell, which becomes part of the cells DNA! Bacterium takes in a plasmid

Antibiotic selection

...

BT crops

Make own insecticide

Genetic marker

A gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry a plasmid containing foreign DNA from those that don't

Restriction enzyme

Cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides

Round up ready crops

Contain a gene for round up resistance

Bacteriophage

A virus that infects bacteria

Plasmid

Foreign DNA is first joined to a small circualar molecule (inside bacterium)

Bacteria

Where plasmids are naturally found

Stick ends

Allow two pieces of DNA to be joined together

Biotechnology

...

Genetic engineering

Artificial minipulation of genes

Gene therapy

Altering DNA to cure diseases

Gene enhancement

Attempts to improve a healthy individual

Germline engineering

Changes in the early egg, sperm or embryo, will be passes down to offspring/generations

Somatic cell engineering

Changes in the somatic cells and changes won't be passed down to offsprimg! No effect on egg or sperm

PGD

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis, scan DNA and see which is healthiest

IVF

In-vitro fertilization, makes embryos in petrie dishes

GMO

Gentically modified organism

Transgenic organism

Contains a gene from different spic

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